The Art manifesto has been a recurrent feature associated with the avant-garde in Modernism. Art manifestos are mostly extreme in their rhetoric and intended for shock value to achieve a revolutionary effect. They often address wider issues, such as the political system. Typical themes are the need for revolution, freedom (of expression) and the implied or overtly stated superiority of the writers over the status quo. The manifesto gives a means of expressing, publicising and recording ideas for the artist or art group—even if only one or two people write the words, it is mostly still attributed to the group name.
The first art manifesto of the 20th century was introduced with the Futurists in Italy in 1909, and readily taken up by the Vorticists, Dadaists and the Surrealists after them: the period up to World War II created what are still the best known manifestos. Although they never stopped being issued, other media such as the growth of broadcasting tended to sideline such declarations. Due to the internet there has been a resurgence of the form, and many new manifestos are now appearing to a potential worldwide audience. The Stuckists have made particular use of this to start a worldwide movement of affiliated groups.
Manifestos typically consist of a number of statements, which are numbered or in bullet points and which do not necessarily follow logically from one to the next. Tristan Tzara's explanation of the manifesto (Feeble Love & Bitter Love, II) captures the spirit of many:
|“||A manifesto is a communication made to the whole world, whose only pretension is to the discovery of an instant cure for political, astronomical, artistic, parliamentary, agronomical and literary syphilis. It may be pleasant, and good-natured, it's always right, it's strong, vigorous and logical. Apropos of logic, I consider myself very likeable.||”|
The manifesto was previously a political document of state. Indeed the declaration of war in 1914 was embodied in a document titled a "manifesto". This background is extremely informative when assessing the positioning and impact of the manifesto as adopted by the early artistic users of it, who were subverting, even destroying, the form, as part of an overall challenge to art and society.
Although it might be assumed that an art manifesto's primary purpose is to communicate the aesthetics of the group issuing it, this turns out not to be the case, nor is it an art form in its own right. The norm is a hybrid form that combines a theatrical performance with political declamation.  Artists have not restricted themselves to their own genre, although they have often used their skills in the presentation of the text through graphics and type faces, resulting in a combination of "art, publicity, criticism, and advertising".
Martin Puchner stresses the inescapable connection between the art manifesto and the political manifesto, not least because artists also issued overt political statements and allied themselves with political groups. Marinetti tried to gain a political office and both Italian and Russian Futurists issued political manifestos. Lenin was espoused by the Zürich Dadaists, and Rosa Luxemburg by those in Berlin. In England the Suffragettes were supported by Vorticist Wyndham Lewis, and the Communists by Surrealist André Breton in France. However, the attentions of the artists were often not welcomed. Marinetti found himself stymied by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and Velimir Khlebnikov by Leon Trotsky, while Breton was an outcast from the French Communist party and Guy Debord resorted to starting an independent group. 
Puchner, Terry Eagleton and Fredric Jameson cite the general de-politicization of more recent postmodernist groups' manifestos; Fluxus and others have struggled to reconcile their anti-authoritarianism with the prescriptive nature of the manifesto genre. 
Extracts from the Vorticists' BLAST manifesto were published in their magazine Blast, number 1, on June 20, 1914, and then in Blast, number 2, in July 1915.
Hugo Ball recited the first Dada manifesto at a cabaret on July 14, 1916.
Signed by Theo van Doesburg, Robt. van 't Hoff, Vilmos Huszar, Antony Kok, Piet Mondrian, G. Vantongerloo, Jan Wils
Manifest I of "The Style" (De Stijl), from De Stijl, vol. II, no. 1 (November 1918), p.4.
The first Surrealist manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton in 1924 and released to the public 1925. The document defines Surrealism as:
by Theo van Doesburg
Base de la peinture concrète, Art Concret, no. 1 (April 1930).
by Mario Sironi
by surrealist André Breton and marxist Leon Trotsky as a reaction against the Soviet Union's mandated art.
by Lucio Fontana
The Refus global (or Total Refusal) was an anti-establishment and anti-religious manifesto released on August 9, 1948 in Montreal by a group of sixteen young Québécois artists and intellectuals known as les Automatistes, led by Paul-Émile Borduas.
The Refus global was greatly influenced by French poet André Breton, and it extolled the creative force of the subconscious.
by René Iché
by Salvador Dalí
The Mystical Manifesto inaugurated Dalí's Nuclear mysticism period.
Les Spatialistes, an Italian group based in Milan drew up a manifesto for television.
This work by Michel Tapié defined the art informel movement.
by Jirô Yoshihara
by Gustav Metzger
In 1964 this was given as a lecture to the Architectural Association, which was taken over by students as an artistic "Happening". One of Metzger's Ealing College students was Pete Townshend, who later cited Metzger's concepts as an influence for his famous guitar-smashing during performances of The Who.
by Ferreira Gullar.
by Giuseppe Pinot-Gallizio, August 1959
The full title is "Manifesto of Industrial Painting: For a unitary applied art". It was originally published in Italian in Notizie Arti Figurative No. 9 (1959). Shortly afterwards it was published in Internationale Situationniste no.3 in a French translation. It was translated into English in 1997 by Molly Klein. It has only 70 points and is written a grand utopian rhetorical manner, with statements such as, "A new, ravenous force of domination will push men toward an unimaginable epic poetry." One of its themes is the reconciliation of industry and nature:
Manifestos in the 1960s reflected the changing social and political attitudes of the times: the general ferment of "counterculture" revolution to overthrow the existing order and the particular rise of feminism and Black Power, as well as the pioneering of new art forms such as body art and performance art.
The Situationist International was founded at Cosio d’Arroscia April 27, 1957 by eight members, who wanted a revolutionary art with a state of constant transformation, and hence newness, as well as abolishing the gap between art and life. The manifesto espousing this was issued May 17, 1960 and reprinted in Internationale Situationniste number 4 in June 1960. It advocated the "new human force" against technology and the "dissatisfaction of its possible uses in our senseless social life", stating "We will inaugurate what will historically be the last of the crafts. The role of amateur-professional situationist—of anti-specialist—is again a specialization up to the point of economic and mental abundance, when everyone becomes an 'artist'". Its final sentence is: "Such are our goals, and these will be the future goals of humanity."
by Yves Klein
This manifesto has been copyrighted since 1989 by the Gagosian Gallery. It begins with the prompts for the later statements in the manifesto, the first line being, "Due to the fact that I have painted monochromes for fifteen years". It is a meditation by the artist about his work and life:
He appropriates the sky:
He ends with an affirmation that he is "ready to dive into the void".
by Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg, a Pop artist, reacting against Abstract Expressionism, along with other young artists. The Manifesto ‘I am for an Art’ was originally made to be included in the catalogue of the 'Environments, Situations and Spaces’ exhibition. Each of the statements begin with 'I am for an art...'.
Here is a quote from the first two
statement in his poetical manifesto,
"I am for an art that is political-erotical-mystical, that does something other than sit on its ass in a museum.
I am for an art that grows up not knowing it is art at all, an art given the chance of having a staring point of zero... " ( Harrison, C. and Wood, P. (2006) Art in Theory, 1900-2000: an Anthology of Changing Ideas. 2 ed. USA: Blackwell Publishing)
by George Maciunas
This is a short hand-printed document of three paragraphs interspersed with collage elements from dictionary definitions related to "flux". It is written in lower case, with upper case for certain key phrases, some underlined. Its first paragraph is:
It advocates revolution, "living art, anti-art" and "non art reality to be grasped by all peoples, not only critics, dilettantes and professionals."
by Valerie Solanas
S.C.U.M. is an acronym for the "Society for Cutting up Men" and the manifesto was not specifically about art. However, it has become part of art history, because it was published in 1968, the same year that Solanas, who had spent time in Andy Warhol's "Factory", shot and nearly killed him. It also has sections that address art ideas. Solanas spent her last years as a street prostitute and died in 1988.
It is a document of just over 11,000 words. Its tone and basic theme are evident from the title, but it is not quite as clear cut as it seems and some women are admitted to be as bad as men (women artists, for example). SCUM wants to "destroy all useless and harmful objects — cars, store windows, "Great Art", etc." In a section on "'Great Art' and 'Culture'" it states:
by Mierle Laderman Ukeles
The full title of the manifesto is "Maintenance Art—Proposal for an Exhibition"; it is considered a seminal document of feminist art. She was pregnant at the time, and decided to reinterpret household chores by becoming a "maintenance artist", where she would "perform" them. Through this such "maintenance" revealed itself as an important condition for freedom and social functioning and she extended the idea beyond feminism to projects like the 11 month Touch Sanitation, involving 8,500 New York workers. More recently she has addressed a landfill site on Staten Island.
The manifesto was followed by a questionnaire (1973-76) and was concerned with making art of what would normally be seen as routine, mundane chores. She wrote, "After the revolution, who is going to pick up the garbage on Monday morning?". She followed this up with a "Sanitation Manifesto!" (1984) The Maintenance Manifesto stated:
by Jeff Donaldson
Jeff Donaldson was a cofounder of Afri-Cobra, a black artist collective founded in the late 1960s and based in Chicago. He helped organise international shows of black artists and wrote influential manifestos. AfriCobra is an acronym for "African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists". This was derived from combining the term for Africa with "Cobra", the "Coalition of Black Revolutionary Artists". The manifesto stated the groups objectives to be the development of a new African American art, involving social responsibility, community artistic involvement and promotion of pride in Black identity. There were parallels with African American musical innovations, and the advocacy of a complementary aesthetic involving sublime imagery and high-key colours.
WAR is an acronym for "Women Artists in Revolution" of which Nancy Spero was a member. Prior to this in 1966–70 she had created a series of anti-Vietnam War "manifestos" which were images created with water paints and inks on paper. She then attended AWC (Art Workers Coalition) meetings, which had men and women members, and became part of WAR, which was an offshoot. She said, "I loved it. I was so angry at that time about so many things, especially about not being able to get my art out, to get people to look. I thought, "WAR"— that's it. We started to organize some actions and protests and wrote manifestos. For example, a few of us marched into the Museum of Modern Art and demanded equality for women artists. Then, I joined another, the Ad Hoc Committee of Women Artists. It all went very fast in those days."
by Valie Export
Valie Export is a Viennese performance artist who worked with the Actionists and catalogued their events. She did her own confrontational body art, with a philosophy of "Feminist Actionism", inviting people to touch her in the street. She issued "written manifestos predicting with vengeance the future of women's art" and "made important theoretical contributions to communicating a personal feminism in performance. She felt that it was important politically to create art. 'I knew that if I did it naked, I would really change how the (mostly male) audience would look at me.'"
The French Sociological art Collective was founded by Fred Forest, Jean-Paul Thénot and Hervé Fischer and had their manifesto published in the newspaper Le Monde. Its main purpose was using sociology to underpin artistic actions, or using artistic actions to elucidate sociological phenomena. One such action was the auctioning of a "artistic square meter" in 1976 to spoof the inflation of prices in the housing and art markets. The collective made heavy use of mass media and live performance using video, telephones, etc. The group was dissolved in 1981, though some of its tenets were brought by Fred Forest and Mario Costa with the Communication aesthetics movement of 1983. 
In 1975 François Pluchart promoted the first Body Art show at the Galerie Stadler in Paris, with work from 21 artists, including Marcel Duchamp, Chris Burden and Katharina Sieverding. The first Body Art manifesto was published.
by Paul Hartal
This is a four page document illustrated with nine black and white images of the artist's paintings, collages and multimedia, published in Montreal in 1975. "My art is a painted metaphor; the past machine of a perpetual second, the fossil emotion of an infinite longing, the magic desire evolving on the broken axis of the compressed space, reflected in the form of inner, personal landscapes", writes Hartal in the manifesto. "Art ought to be total", he suggests. "The biotic separated from the geometrical is arbitrary, and ignores the human nature." The idea of "Lyrical Conceptualism is based on the wholeness of the psychological coordinate", he says. It "derives from the id, ego and superego"; an "art in which the primarily twofold character of the artist's view evolves into a lyrical, intuitive and conceptual triad". In The Brush and the Compass: The Interface Dynamics of Art and Science (Lanham: University Press of America, 1988, 341 pp), Hartal discusses in more detail the theory of Lyrical Conceptualism or Lyco art, ,, , , , 
The rise of the punk movement with its basic and aggressive DIY attitude had a significant input into art manifestos, and this is reflected even in the titles. Some of the artists overtly identified with punk through music, publishing or poetry performance. There is also an equivalent "shocking" interpretation of feminism which contradicts the non-objectification advocated in the 1960s. Then the growing presence of the computer age began to assert itself in art proclamations as in society.
by Charles Thomson
This was posted in Maidstone Art College by Charles Thomson, then a student at the college. 21 years later he co-wrote the Stuckist manifestos with Billy Childish. Thomson was also a member of the punk-based The Medway Poets. The manifesto rejects "department store" art and "elitist" gallery art, as well as sophistication and skill which are "easily obtainable ... and are used both industrially and artistically to conceal a poverty of content." The priority is stated to be "the exploration and expression of the human spirit".
by Stewart Home
At this time Stewart Home operated as a one-person movement "Generation Positive", founding a punk band called White Colours and publishing an art fanzine Smile, which mostly contained art manifestos for the "Generation Positive". The rhetoric of these resembled the 1920s Berlin Dadaist manifestos. His idea was that other bands round the world should also call themselves White Colours and other magazines be titled Smile. The first part of the book Neoist Manifestos/The Art Strike Papers featured abriged versions of his manifesto-style writings from Smile.
The basic tenet of the IAAA is the depiction of space (as in the cosmos) through realist painting. They disassociate themselves from science fiction and fantasy artists: "a firm foundation of knowledge and research is the basis for each painting. Striving to accurately depict scenes which are at present beyond the range of human eyes". The group now has over 120 members representing 20 countries.
by the Bread and Puppet Theater
The whole title is "the Why Cheap Art? manifesto". It is a single sheet, issued by the Bread and Puppet Theater "in direct response to the business of art and its growing appropriation by the corporate sector." There are seventeen statements, most of them beginning "Art is" and ending with an exclamation mark, set out mostly in upper case, sometimes mixed in with lower case, in different typefaces which get bolder through the leaflet till the final statement of a large HURRAH. It starts:
It stresses the positive nature of art which is beneficial to all and should be available to all, using poetic images such as "Art is like green trees", and urging, "Art fights against war & stupidity! ... Art is cheap!
by Donna J. Haraway
This has the full title of "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth-Century." Donna Haraway is a cultural historian. She advocates the deveopment of cyborgs ("cybernetic organisms") as the way forward for a post-gender society. This had a significant effect initially amongst academics. VNS Matrix, a group of Australian women artists and British cultural historian, Sadie Plant, established a cyberfeminist movement in 1994. From 1997, the Old Boys Network (OBN) has organised "Cyberfeminist Internationals".
by Gilbert and George
The manifesto is five paragraphs, each with a subtitle, the first of which is "Art for All", summing up the popularist intent of their manifesto:
There is also an intent to change people, but "The art-material must be subservient to the meaning and purpose of the picture." It states:
The conclusion is an affirmation of "our life-search for new meanings and purpose to give to life."
by Véronica Vera
The manifesto was signed by Véronica Vera and Candida Royalle (both ex porn stars who had then directed their own porn movies), Annie Sprinkle (who gives explicit sexual one woman shows) and performance artist Frank Moore, among other significant artists who use sex in their work. In 7 short points, it founds an art movement, which "celebrates sex as the nourishing, life-giving force. We embrace our genitals as part, not separate, from our spirits." It advocates the "attitude of sex-positivism" and wishes to "communicate our ideas and emotions ... to have fun, heal the world and endure."
by VNS Matrix
VNS Matrix was a cyberfeminist art collective founded in Adelaide, Australia, in 1991. Their manifesto, written in 1991, was translated over the years into many languages including Italian, French, Spanish, Russian, Japanese and Finnish. It begins:
In 1996 they wrote the Bitch Mutant Manifesto.
by Michael Betancourt
The ____________ Manifesto proposed an interactive, fill-in-the-blanks view of prohibitions and claims to be made about art and art movements. It was an early interactive piece of net art that appeared in webzines and in newsgroups, inviting participation. It begins:
The manifesto ends with a Reset button. The text is sampled from Tristian Tzara's Dada manifestos, but key pieces from the original text have been omitted and replaced with blanks to be filled-in.
It is one of the earliest manifestos to be published on the Internet as well as in print.
by Billy Childish
Group Hangman was started by Billy Childish, Tracey Emin and two others in Medway, Kent in 1983 for a short time. Fourteen years later it reformed with more members (nearly all of whom later joined the Stuckists art group), but without Emin. At this point Childish wrote 6 short manifestos, each containing 7 – 12 statements. He says, "they were anarchic and contradictory - my favourite!"Some of the ideas resurfaced in the Stuckist manifestos written two years later. Point 9 of Communication 0001 states:
Style must be smashed ("Artistic talent is the only obstacle") and the unacceptable must be embraced. The last communication, of only two short sentences, was written in 2000 and recommends, "It is time for art to grow up."
by Natasha Vita-More (formerly Nancie Clark)
(A genre of the Transhumanist art movement whose manifesto was written in 1982)
This was written on January 1, 1997, and was apparently "onboard the Cassini Huygens spacecraft on its mission to Saturn." Following the statement "We are transhumans", there is the explanation, "Transhumanist Art reflects an extropic appreciation of aesthetics in a technologically enhanced world." After the manifesto is a "FAQ", which states, "Transhumanist Arts include creative works by scientists, engineers, technicians, philosophers, athletes, educators, mathematicians, etc., who may not be artists in the traditional sense, but whose vision and creativity are integral to transhumanity." The Manifesto is based on a Transhumanist Art Statement written in 1982. Cited as specific influences are "Abstract Art, Performance Art, Kinetic Art, Cubism, Techno Art, science fiction and Communications Art." Some collaborators of Vita-More's are named as Timothy Leary, Bill Viola and Francis Ford Coppola.
Widespread access to the internet has created a new incentive for artists to publish manifestos, with the knowledge that there is an instant potential worldwide audience. The effect of the internet on art manifestos has been described: "One could almost say we are living through a new boom time for the manifesto. The Web allows almost anybody to nail a broadsheet to the virtual wall for all to see." Some of the manifestos also appear in print form; others only exist as virtual text. It has also led to a great diversity of approaches, as well as a noticeable trend looking back at earlier traditions of Modernism or the Renaissance to create a present and future paradigm. The Stuckists manifesto has become well known, though most others have achieved little individual reputation or impact.
by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson
The Stuckists have grown in seven years from 13 artists in London to 137 groups in 34 countries, and claim, "Stuckism is the first significant art movement to spread via the Internet" The first 3 points of their numbered eponymous manifesto proclaim "a quest for authenticity", "painting is the medium of self discovery" and "a model of art which is holistic". The 4th point states, "Artists who don't paint aren't artists"; the 5th is, "Art that has to be in a gallery to be art isn’t art." Points are made against conceptual art, Britart, Charles Saatchi, art gimmicks and white wall galleries, while the amateur is hailed. The final point is:
This manifesto is available on their web site in 7 languages. They have issued at least 8 other manifestos, including the Remodernist Manifesto (2000), which inaugurates "a new spirituality in art" (to replace Postmodernism's "scientific materialism, nihilism and spiritual bankruptcy"), the Turner Prize Manifesto, handed out in their demonstrations at Tate Britain and a Critique of Damien Hirst. The Tate gallery holds three of the manifestos. Spin-offs by other Stuckists include a Camberwell College of Arts Students for Stuckism manifesto (2000), a rewrite by Terry Reynoldson (2004) and a teenagers' Underage Stuckists Manifesto (2006). In 2006, Allen Herndon, also known as A. Sea Herndon, published The Manifesto of the American Stuckists, whose content was challenged by the Los Angeles Stuckists group. There has also been an anti-Stuckist manifesto published in 2005 by the London Surrealist Group.
by Lee Scrivner
An avant-garde manifesto that reviews avant-garde manifestos of the past hundred years, it was taped to the front door of the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London in April 2006. It was later published online by ICA residents, the London Consortium.
by Jesse Richards
A manifesto on filmmaking written by former Stuckist painter, photographer and filmmaker Jesse Richards that like the closely related Remodernism manifesto, calls for a "new spirituality", but in this instance, in relation to cinema. The manifesto proclaims a spiritual film to be "not about religion. It is cinema concerned with humanity and an understanding of the simple truths and moments of humanity. Spiritual film is really ALL about these moments". Point 4 of the manifesto discusses Japanese aesthetics in relation to the idea of Remodernist film: "The Japanese ideas of wabi-sabi (the beauty of imperfection) and mono no aware (the awareness of the transience of things and the bittersweet feelings that accompany their passing), have the ability to show the truth of existence, and should always be considered when making the remodernist film". The manifesto also criticizes filmmakers that shoot on video,arguing that film, particularly Super-8 film "has a rawness, and an ability to capture the poetic essence of life, that video has never been able to accomplish" and also criticizes Stanley Kubrick's work, as being "dishonest and boring", as well as Dogme 95's "pretentious checkist" of rules. Instead, the Remodernist film philosophy seems to be somewhat anti-ego, with Richards noting that "this manifesto should be viewed only as a collection of ideas and hints whose author may be mocked and insulted at will". The manifesto was recently translated into Turkish and published by the film website Bakiniz, and is being translated into Polish and published by the Polish underground art and culture magazine, RED.
by Conrad Bo
This manifesto was written by the South African conceptual artist Conrad Bo, who believes the Superstroke Art Movement is the first internationally known art movement in Africa since the Fook Island art movement started by Walter Battiss. The manifesto is quite specific in what the Superstroke Art Movement want to achieve. Superstroke is short for the super expressive brush stroke. The the Manifesto for the Superstroke Art Movement written by Conrad Bo is as follows: 1.Paintings should be executed using expressive even violent brush strokes on at least some part of the picture. 2.Should a photograph be used for a figurative painting, the objection should not be Photorealism, but Expressionism. 3.If mediums such as pen, pencil, etc are used, the pen and pencil strokes must at least be overly expressive for it to be considered a Superstroke picture. 4.Paintings can be executed in both the abstract and figurative. 5.Subject matters such as Africa, light, dark, life and death are encouraged. 6.Collage, Stencil and Calligraphy may be used for impact. 7.The concept, Art for the sake of art, does not apply in Superstroke. In Superstroke it is art for the sake of Superstroke, as the artist must always strive for paintings rich in texture, or excessive brush or pencil strokes.
These manifestos are cited not for their individual significance, but as examples of the diversity of approaches that can be found in manifestos on the web, ranging through computer art, "Gothic" art, jokes, traditional art, punk provocation and the use of the form by commerce. This also allows the influence of historical manifestos on contemporary ideas to be assessed.
by Adam Nash, Justin Clemens and Christopher Dodds
A manifesto produced by The Australian Centre of Virtual Art (ACVA). It describes virtual art as a "post-convergent" form, containing all previous media as subsets.
by Kerry Mitchell
There is an introduction followed by two sections—"Fractal art is" (4 bullet points) and "Fractal art is not" (3 bullet points). Fractal art has been around "15–20 years". It is obviously concerned with computer-generated fractal images, but advanced as art "in many respects similar to photography—another art form which was greeted by skepticism upon its arrival. Fractal images typically are manifested as prints, bringing Fractal Artists into the company of painters, photographers, and printmakers." The need for selection and skill is stressed, as is the need for the practitioner to be "expressive" and "creative". It concludes, "Most of all, Fractal Art is simply that which is created by Fractal Artists: ART."
by Miltos Manetas
This is a Manifesto about Website art and computer existentialism.
by Susie Ramsay and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
This was written tongue-in-cheek, beginning, "'OK art' is an OK idea,—not great, but not bad either." It has the ring of truth when it states in point 4: "Art enthusiasts and cynics alike, leave an OK art exhibition saying 'that was OK'. No one is blown away but they don't feel cheated either."
by Christopher Fiddes
This British manifesto is signed by over 100 painters and sculptors of professional standing. It opens by stating "the visual arts have reached a point of crisis. The art that has enjoyed critical acclaim in recent decades is shallow, trivial, ill-crafted and bankrupt of ideas." It condemns abstraction, "the same tired formula" of conceptualism, the Turner Prize and the destruction of art school academic training by the Coldstream Committee in the mid-20th century. It advocates technical accomplishment, reverence for the "great art that has been in the past" and a return to tradition while also, ironically, acknowledging:
An organisation with similar aims in America is the Art Renewal Center.
This represents the adoption of a revolutionary medium by mainstream commercialism, in this case the Cass Art chain of artshops in London. As part of their promotion they have issued a "manifesto" in the style of an art group. It begins, "Art is freedom. Cass Art believes in art." There are seven points. The sixth starts, "We want to fill this town with artists", which has also been displayed across their shop fronts in a banner.
Date given is that of the manifesto.
No date, presumed post-2000