listed on the New York Stock Exchange
listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange
| Companies based in Zug
| Drilling rig operators
From Dikipedia, the free encyclopedia
BP plc is a British global energy company that is also the
third largest global energy company and the 4th largest company in the
world. As a multinational oil company ("oil major") BP is the UK's largest
corporation, with its headquarters in St
James's, City of Westminster, London.
BP America's headquarters is in the Two Westlake Park in the Energy Corridor
area of Houston. The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the
world, and one of the six "supermajors"
(vertically integrated private sector oil exploration, natural
gas, and petroleum product marketing companies).
The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a
constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
In May 1901, William Knox D'Arcy was granted a
concession by the Shah of Iran to search for oil which he
discovered in May 1908.
This was the first commercially significant find in the Middle East. On
14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC)
was incorporated to exploit this.
In 1923, the company secretly gave £5,000 to future Prime
Minister Winston Churchill to lobby the British
government to allow them to monopolise Persian oil resources.
In 1935, it became the Anglo-Iranian
Oil Company (AIOC).
After World War II, AIOC and the Iranian government initially
resisted nationalist pressure to revise AIOC's concession terms still
further in Iran's
favour. But in March 1951, the pro-western Prime Minister Ali Razmara was assassinated.
The Majlis of Iran
(parliament) elected a nationalist, Mohammed Mossadeq,
as prime minister. In April, the Majlis nationalised the oil industry by unanimous
The National Iranian Oil Company
was formed as a result, displacing the AIOC.
The AIOC withdrew its management from Iran, and organised an effective
boycott of Iranian oil. The British government - which owned the AIOC -
contested the nationalisation at the International Court of Justice
Hague, but its complaint was dismissed.
By spring of 1953, incoming U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorised the Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) to organise a coup against the Mossadeq government with support
from the British government.
On 19 August 1953, Mossadeq was forced from office by the CIA
conspiracy, involving the Shah and the Iranian military, and known by
its codename, Operation Ajax.
Classic shield logo, designed by Raymond
, used from 1979 to 2000 and still in use in a small number of
Mossadeq was replaced by pro-Western general Fazlollah Zahedi,
and the Shah, who had left the country briefly to await the outcome of
the coup, returned to Iran. He abolished the democratic Constitution
and assumed autocratic powers.
After the coup, Mossadegh's National Iranian Oil Company
became an international consortium, and AIOC resumed operations in Iran
as a member of it.
The consortium agreed to share profits on a 50–50 basis with Iran, "but
not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its
board of directors."
AIOC, as a part of the Anglo-American coup d'état deal, was not
to monopolise Iranian oil as before. It was limited to a 40% share in a
new international consortium. For the rest, 40% went to the five major
American companies and 20% went to Royal Dutch Shell and Compagnie
Française des Pétroles, now Total
The AIOC became the British Petroleum Company in 1954. In 1959 the
company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska
and in 1965 it was the first company to strike oil in the North
In 1978 BP acquired a controlling interest in Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio, a
breakoff of the former Standard Oil that had been broken up after
BP continued to operate in Iran until the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The new
regime of Ayatollah Khomeini
confiscated all of BP's assets in Iran without compensation, finally
closing BP's 70-year presence in Iran.
1980s and 1990s
Sir Peter Walters was BP's chairman from 1981 to 1990.
This was the era of the Thatcher government's privatisation
strategy. The British government sold its entire holding in BP in
several tranches between 1979 and 1987.
The sale process was marked by a bad attempt by the Kuwait Investment Office, the
investment arm of the Kuwait government, to acquire control of BP.
This was ultimately blocked by the strong opposition of the British
government. In 1987, British Petroleum negotiated the acquisition of Britoil
and the remaining publicly traded shares of Standard Oil of Ohio. 
A British BP Shop Petrol Station.
Walters was replaced by Robert
in 1989. Horton carried out a major corporate down-sizing exercise
removing various tiers of management within the BP Head Office.
Lord Browne of Madingley,
who had been on the board as managing director since 1991, was
appointed group chief executive in 1995.
Browne was responsible for three major acquisitions; Amoco, ARCO and Burmah-Castrol (see
British Petroleum merged with Amoco
(formerly Standard Oil of Indiana) in December 1998,
becoming BP Amoco until 2000 when it was renamed BP and adopted the
tagline "Beyond Petroleum," which remains in use today. It states that
BP was never meant to be an abbreviation of its tagline. Most Amoco
stations in the United States were converted to BP's brand and
corporate identity. In many states, however, BP continued to sell Amoco
branded gasoline even in service stations with the BP identity as Amoco
was rated the best petroleum brand by consumers for 16 consecutive
years and also enjoyed one of the three highest brand loyalty
reputations for gasoline in the US, comparable only to Chevron and Shell.
In May 2008, when the Amoco name was mostly phased out in favour of "BP
Gasoline with Invigorate", promoting BP's new additive, the highest
grade of BP gasoline available in the United States was still called
Amoco Ultimate. In 2000, British Petroleum acquired Arco (Atlantic
and Burmah Castrol plc.
Chief scientist, Steven Koonin (top right, with laptop), speaks about
the energy scene in the boardroom in 2005.
In April 2004, BP decided to move most of its petrochemical
businesses into a separate entity called Innovene within the BP Group.
BP sought to sell the new company possibly via an initial public offering (IPO) in
the US, and filed IPO plans for Innovene with the New York Stock Exchange on 12
September 2005. On 7 October 2005, however, BP announced that it had
agreed to sell Innovene to INEOS, a privately held UK chemical company for $9
billion, thereby scrapping its plans for the IPO.
On 23 March 2005, an explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery. The
third largest refinery in the US and one of the largest in the world,
at the time it processed 433,000 barrels (68,800 m3)
crude oil per day and accounted for 3% of the nation's gasoline
supply. Over 100 were injured, fifteen fatally, including employees of
the Fluor Corporation
as well as BP. BP agreed that its mismanagement contributed to the
accident. Level indicators failed, leading to overfilling of a heater,
and light hydrocarbons spread throughout the area. An unidentified
ignition source set off the explosion. 
In 2005, BP announced that it would be leaving the Colorado
Many locations were re-branded as Conoco.
In March 2006, a leak in one of BP's pipelines on the North Slope in
Alaska caused a spill of oil onto the tundra, leading BP to commit to
replace over 16 miles (26 km) of federally regulated Oil
(OTLs). As of the end of 2007, one half of the pipeline had been
replaced and all 16 miles (26 km) of pipeline are now tested
On 19 July 2006, BP announced that it would close the last 12 out of
57 oil wells in Alaska, mostly in Prudhoe Bay, that had been leaking.
The wells were leaking insulating agent called Arctic pack, consisting
of crude oil and diesel
fuel, between the wells and ice.
BP has recently looked to grow its oil exploration activities in
frontier areas such as the former Soviet Union for its future reserves.
In Russia, BP owns 50% of TNK-BP
with the other half owned by three Russian billionaires. TNK-BP
accounts for a fifth of BP's global reserves, a quarter of BP's
production, and nearly a tenth of its global profits.
In 2007, according to some private BP-branded gasoline center
operators in the Metro Atlanta area, BP planned to leave the Southern
market in the next few years. All corporate-owned BP stations,
typically known as "BP Connect", were to be sold to local jobbers.
On 12 January 2007, it was announced that Lord Browne would retire
at the end of July 2007.
The new Chief Executive will be the current head of exploration and
production, Tony Hayward. It had been expected that Lord Browne would
retire in February 2008 when he reached the age of 60, the standard
retirement age at BP. Browne resigned abruptly from BP on 1 May 2007,
following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from
publishing details about his private life. Hayward succeeded Browne
with immediate effect.
On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded off the
Gulf of Mexico,
resulting in excess of 200,000 gallons of oil (approx. 5,000 barrels)
leaking every single day after a blow-out preventer designed to stop
oil from flowing out during an emergency failed to activate. The spill
was expected to continue until the blow-out preventer could be
activated or another containment method implemented. Though 115 workers
were evacuated from the site, eleven missing workers were presumed
dead. On 28 April 2010, the US Coast Guard set fire to some sequestered
portions of oil which had leaked from the uncapped well located five
thousand feet below the Gulf of Mexico.
On 29 April 2010, the economic impact from the Deepwater Horizon
drilling rig explosion on Gulf Coast shrimpers led to a suit naming
BP as well as Transocean and Halliburton
as co-defendants. Two similar lawsuits were filed in U.S. District
Courts in New Orleans and the adjacent Gulf state of Alabama on 28 and
29 April, respectively, accusing the companies of negligence. 
The Board Members are:
Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil" sorted by latest
Financial data in millions of US$
- Source :'OpesC'
City Refinery disaster
One of BP's largest refineries in the USA exploded in March 2005
causing 15 deaths. The fall-out from the accident continues to cloud
BP's corporate image because of the mismanagement at the plant. There
have been several investigations of the disaster, the most recent being
that from the U.S.
Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. It was preceded by
the Baker report and BP's own internal investigation.
A large column filled with hydrocarbon overflowed to form a vapour
cloud, which ignited. The explosion caused all the casualties and
substantial damage to the rest of the plant. The incident came as the
culmination of a series of less serious accidents at the refinery, and
the engineering problems were not addressed by the management.
Maintenance and safety at the plant had been cut as a cost-saving
measure, the responsibility ultimately resting with executives in
On 30 October 2009 the US Occupational
Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) imposed an $87 million fine on the company for failing to
correct safety hazards revealed in the 2005 explosion. The fine was the
largest in OSHA's history.
In August, 2006, BP shut down oil operations in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, due to corrosion in
pipelines leading up to the Alaska Pipeline. BP
had spilled over one million litres of oil in Alaska's North Slope.
This corrosion is caused by sediment collecting in the bottom of the
pipe, protecting corrosive bacteria from chemicals sent through the
pipeline to fight this bacteria. There are estimates that about
5,000 barrels (790 m3) of oil were released from
the pipeline. To date 1,513 barrels (240.5 m3) of
liquids, about 5,200 cubic yards (4,000 m3) of
soiled snow and 328 cubic yards (251 m3)
of soiled gravel have been recovered. After approval from the DOT, only
the eastern portion of the field was shut down, resulting in a
reduction of 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m3/d)
until work began to bring the eastern field to full production on 2
In May 2007, the company announced another partial field shutdown
owing to leaks of water at a separation plant. Their action was
interpreted as another example of fallout from a decision to cut
maintenance of the pipeline and associated facilities. 
On 16 October 2007 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
officials reported a toxic spill of methanol
at the Prudhoe Bay oil field managed by BP PLC. Nearly 2,000 gallons of
mostly methanol, mixed with some crude oil and water, spilled onto a
frozen tundra pond as well as a gravel pad from a pipeline. Methanol,
which is poisonous to plants and animals, is used to clear ice from the
insides of the Arctic-based pipelines.
drilling rig explosion
On April 20, 2010 a semi-submersible exploratory offshore drilling
rig in the Gulf of Mexico
exploded after a blowout and sank two days later, taking with it eleven
lives and causing a significant oil spill threatening the coast of Louisiana,
The rig, owned by Transocean,
Ltd., is leased and operated by BP who is the majority owner of the oil
field . The company originally downplayed the size of the leak at about
1,000 barrels a day but later accepted government estimates of a leak
of at least 5,000 barrels a day. Seeking to blunt criticism of its
emergency response BP indicated on April 30 that it would harness all
of its resources to battle the oil spill, spending $7 million a day
with its partners to try to contain the disaster.
BP was running the well without a remote-control shut-off switch used
in two other major oil-producing nations, Brazil
a last-resort protection against underwater spills. The switch would
not have made a difference in this incident, however, as other switches
were utilized to activate the blowout preventers, including manual
operation using ROVs.
The use of such devices is not mandated by U.S. regulators and their
efficacy remains unclear due to the rarity of major offshore oil-well
The U.S. Government
gave the responsibility of the incident to BP and will hold it
accountable for costs incurred in containing the situation. 
BP's image has been tarnished somewhat by its involvement with the
pipeline, criticised for human rights abuses, environmental and
In July 2006, a group of Colombian
farmers won a multi million pound settlement from BP after the British
oil and gas company was accused of benefiting from a regime of terror
carried out by Colombian government paramilitaries to protect a
450-mile (720 km) pipeline. 
There have been some calls
for BP to halt its "Mist Mountain" Coalbed Methane Project in the
Southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia. The proposed
project is directly adjacent to the Waterton-Glacier International
Canadian oil sands
BP is one of numerous firms who are extracting oil from Canadian oil
sands, a process that produces four times as much CO2 as
The Cree aboriginal group describe BP as being complicit in 'the
biggest environmental crime on the planet' .
The Cree aboriginal group also describe the oil sands projects some of
the great economic influences of the area .
In 2005 BP was considering testing carbon sequestration in one of its North
Sea oil fields, by pumping carbon dioxide into them (and thereby also
In 2004, BP began marketing low-sulphur diesel
fuel for industrial use. BP intends to create a network of hydrogen
fuelling stations in the state of California. BP Solar
is a leading producer of solar panels since its purchase of Lucas
Energy Systems in 1980 and Solarex
(as part of its acquisition of Amoco) in 2000. BP Solar had a 20% world
market share in photovoltaic panels in 2004 when it had a capacity to
produce 90 MW/year of panels. It has over 30 years experience operating
in over 160 countries with manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Spain,
India and Australia and has more than 2000 employees worldwide. The BP
Alternative Energy division has made major investments in solar, wind
and hydrogen power. Through a series of acquisitions in the solar power
industry BP Solar became the third largest producer of solar panels in
the world. It was recently announced that BP has obtained a contract
for a pilot project to provide on-site solar power to Wal-mart stores.
In the 2006 annual report Lord Browne noted that BP now has a total
wind generation capacity of nearly 15,000 megawatts. Based on
calculations of consumption rates by the average American household,
15,000 megawatts would be sufficient to provide power to 1,357 typical
American households. Note that households relative to industry is a
small measure of electric consumption and therefore 15,000 megawatts is
only a small portion of the world’s electricity needs. However, this
does represent a real commitment to wind power generation and actually
makes BP one of the largest generators of wind power in the world.
BP was named by Mother Jones Magazine as one of the "ten worst
corporations" in both 2001 and 2005 based on its environmental and
human rights records.
In 1991 BP was cited as the most polluting company in the US based on
EPA toxic release data. BP has been charged with burning polluted gases
at its Ohio refinery (for which it was fined $1.7 million), and in July
2000 BP paid a $10 million fine to the EPA for its management of its US
According to PIRG research, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was
responsible for 104 oil spills.
BP patented the Dracone Barge to aid in oil spill clean-ups
across the world. 
A Gulf gasoline station in Louisville, KY using the previous BP
prototype. BP purchased all Gulf stations in the southeastern United
States in the 1980's after Chevron, Inc. was forced to divest the
stations by the United States Justice Department.
BP/Amoco was a member of the Global Climate Coalition an
industry organization established to promote global warming
but withdrew in 1997, saying "the time to consider the policy
dimensions of climate change is not when the link between greenhouse
gases and climate change is conclusively proven, but when the
possibility cannot be discounted and is taken seriously by the society
of which we are part. We in BP have reached that point.".
In March 2002 Lord Browne of Madingley declared in a speech that global warming
was real and that urgent action was needed, saying that "Companies
composed of highly skilled and trained people can't live in denial of
mounting evidence gathered by hundreds of the most reputable scientists
in the world."
British Petroleum changed its name to BP in 2000, and introduced a
new corporate slogan: “Beyond Petroleum.” It replaced its “Green
Shield” logo with the helios symbol, a green and yellow sunflower pattern
similar to the emblem of the Green Party of Canada.
These changes were intended to highlight the company’s interest in
alternative and environmentally friendly fuels. When, in July 2006, BP
admitted, only after journalists became aware of the spill, that it was
facing criminal charges for allowing 270,000 gallons of crude oil to
spread into the Alaskan tundra, critics pointed to the relative lack of
press coverage about the spill as evidence that BP had successfully greenwashed
its image while maintaining environmentally unsound practices.
BP was one nominee for the 2009 Greenwash Awards, on companies
trying to look green and failing.
As of 11 February 2007 BP announced that they would spend $8 billion
over ten years to research alternative methods of fuel, including
natural gas, hydrogen, solar, and wind. A $500 million grant to the University of California,
Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory, and the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to create an Energy Biosciences Institute
has recently come under attack, over concerns about the global impacts
of the research and privatisation of public universities.
BP "Helios" fueling station in Los Angeles
In March 2007, BP unveiled its Helios fuel station on
Olympic Boulevard in Los Angeles.
The station has radical architecture for a fuel station, and is a
"living lab" for green technologies.
However, although there are solar panels on the roof, as of July 2007
they are not yet operational.
to political campaigns
According to the Center for Responsive Politics,
is the United States' hundredth largest donor to political
campaigns, having contributed more than US$5 million since 1990, 72%
and 28% of which went to Republican and Democratic recipients,
respectively. BP has lobbied to gain exemptions from U.S. corporate law
Additionally, BP paid the Podesta
a Washington, D.C.-based lobbying firm, $160,000 in the first half of
2007 to manage its congressional and government relations.
In February 2002 BP's chief executive, Lord Browne of
Madingley, renounced the practice of corporate campaign
noting: "That's why we've decided, as a global policy, that from now on
we will make no political contributions from corporate funds anywhere
in the world."
BP retail brands
BP is one of the world's shortest and most valuable brands. The
Helios Logo (Helios
was the name of the Greek sun god), represents energy in its many
forms. The value of the brand is enhanced by the fact that the company
owns the two letter internet domain bp.com. The company registered the
domain in 1989.
ampm is a convenience store chain with branches located in several
U.S. states including Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington,
recently in Illinois, Indiana, Georgia and Florida, and in several
countries worldwide such as Japan. In the western US, the stores are
usually attached to an ARCO gas station; elsewhere, the stores are
attached to BP gas stations. BP Connect stations in the US are
transitioning to the ampm brand.
ARCO is BP's retail brand on the US West Coast in the seven Western
States of California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Idaho, Arizona, and
Utah. BP acquired ARCO (formerly the AtlanticRichfieldCompany) in 2000.
ARCO is a popular "cash only" retailer, selling products refined from
Alaska North Slope crude at plants at Cherry Point (WA), Los Angeles
(CA) and at other contract locations on the West Coast.
BP Travel Centre
BP Travel Centers are large scale destination sites located in
Australia which on top of offering the same features of a BP Connect
site with fuel and a Wild Bean Cafe, also feature major food-retail
tenants such as McDonalds, KFC, Nando's
and recently Krispy Kreme,
with a large seating capacity food court. There are also facilities for
long-haul truck drivers including lounge, showers and washing machines
all in the same building. There are 4 travel centers located in South
East Queensland, Australia. Two on the Pacific Highway (Coomera and
Stapylton) and two on the Bruce Highway (Caboolture). A fifth travel
center was opened in 2007 at Chinderah in northern New South Wales.
is BP's flagship retail brand name with BP Connect Service stations
being operated around the UK, Europe, USA, Australia, New Zealand,
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other parts of the world. BP
Connect sites feature the Wild Bean Cafe which offers cafe style coffee
made by the staff and a selection of hot food as well as freshly baked
muffins and sandwiches. The food offered in Wild Bean Cafe varies from
each site. BP Connect sites usually offer table and chair seating and
often an Internet kiosk. In the
US, the BP Connect concept is gradually being transitioned to the ampm
brand and concept. Some BP Connect sites around the UK ran in
partnership with Marks & Spencer with the on-site shop being an
M&S Simply Food instead of a BP Shop.
was the flagship BP brand prior to the introduction of BP Connect in
2000. There are still some BP Express sites operating around the world
but most have been either upgraded to Connect or changed to an
alternative brand. BP Express offers a bakery service but doesn't have
the selection of food offered in the Wild Bean Cafe and usually coffee
is only available through a self service machine.
To Confuse matters: In the Netherlands BP is opening unmanned
stations with no shops or employees. these stations are called BP
Some of these stations used to be 'ordinary' BP stations, some are new
to the BP network. Apart from these stations BP Express shopping does
also exist in the Netherlands.
A BP Petrol
prices sign outside a BP Shop garage in the United Kingdom (prices in
UK pence per litre).
BP Shop is commonly used on smaller sites mainly independently owned
sites. Products vary in each BP Shop but usually a selection of
convenience store style food and automotive products.
BP 2go branded petrol station in Australia
BP 2go is a franchise brand used for independently operated sites in
New Zealand and is currently being rolled out throughout Australia
(Although not all BP 2go stores are franchises in Australia). BP 2go
sites mainly operate in towns and outer suburbs in New Zealand. BP 2go
offers similar bakery food to BP Connect but in a pre-packaged form.
Some BP Express sites around New Zealand and Australia that were
considered too small to be upgraded to BP Connect were given the option
to change to BP 2go others were downgraded to BP Shop. Staff at some BP
2go sites wear a different style of uniform to the rest of the BP
branded sites, however in company owned and operated 2go sites in
Australia the same uniform is worn across all sites.
is a brand of motor oil and other lubricants which is entirely a BP
brand but tends to retain its separate identity.
Air BP and BP
is the aviation fuel arm, BP Marine the marine
fuels and lubricants arm and BP Shipping is the Shipping arm within the
BP Shipping provides the logistics to move BP’s oil and gas cargoes to
market as well as marine assurance on everything that floats in the BP
group It manages a large fleet of vessels most of which are held on
long term operating leases. BP Shipping’s Chartering Teams based in
London, Singapore and Chicago also charter third party vessels on both
time charter and voyage charter basis. BP-managed fleet consists of
Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs), one North Sea shuttle tanker, medium
size crude and product carriers, liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers,
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) carriers and coasters. All of these ships
The recent BP advertising campaign has been criticised by many as a
superficial and stereotypical representation of the common man. Often
the ads showcase a series of "man-on-the-street" type questionnaires
with questions pertaining to BP. However, the music composed by BP for
the purpose of the ads has been praised and lauded.
BP was also recently awarded a satirical prize, the "Emerald
Paintbrush" award, by Greenpeace
UK. The "Emerald Paintbrush" award was given to BP in order to
highlight its alleged greenwashing campaign. Critics point out that
while BP advertises its relatively minimal investment in alternative
energy sources, the majority of its investments continue to go into fossil fuels.
BP is a sponsor of the Scripps Institution CO2 program to
measure carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
- The history of the British Petroleum Company
- Vol. I:R.W.Ferrier, The Developing Years 1901-1932,
Cambridge University Press, 1982
- Vol. II: James H. Bamberg, The Anglo-Iranian Years,
1928-1954, Cambridge University Press, 1994
- Vol. III: James H. Bamberg, British Petroleum and Global
Oil, 1951-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, Cambridge University
For the early history of BP in Iran and Iraq see
Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Brysac. Kingmakers: the Invention of
the Modern Middle East. W.W. Norton (2008)ISBN 978-0-393-06199-4
- ^ a
"Annual Results 2009". BP. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/STAGING/global_assets/downloads/B/bp_fourth_quarter_and_full_year_2009_results.pdf. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ "BP Global head office." BP.
Retrieved on 9 April 2010.
- ^ "Contact BP in the United Kingdom."
BP. Retrieved on 18 August 2009.
- ^ "Maps." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 28 August
- ^ It's about time oil started
- ^ a
Australian Dictionary of Biography
- ^ The greatest 20th century
beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill
- ^ Yousof
Mazandi, United Press, and Edwin Muller, Government by Assassination
(Reader's Digest September 1951)
Britain Fights Oil Nationalism
- ^ a
BP: History at Funding Universe
Sztucki, Jerzy (1984). Interim measures in the Hague
Court. Brill Archive. p. 43. ISBN 9789065440938. http://books.google.com/books?id=3yDlnBv6Y8cC&lpg=PA43&ots=3VRY_7MGuX&dq=AIOC%20hague%20iran&pg=PA43.
- ^ a
How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53
(and in '79)
- ^ New York Times article, 1953
- ^ Kinzer, All
the Shah's Men, (2003), p.195–6
- ^ Background to Confrontation
- ^ Natural Gas and Alaska's Future:
The Facts page 22
- ^ BP dossier
- ^ a
- ^ TNK appoints Sir Peter Walters
- ^ Privitisation
- ^ Kuwait has 10% of BP
- ^ Britain drops a barrier to BP bid
- ^ Organising for performance: how
BP did it
- ^ Royal Academy of Engineering
- ^ BP and Amoco in oil mega-merger
- ^ BP strikes it rich in America
- ^ BP Amoco to buy Burmah Castrol
- ^ BP sells chemical unit for
- ^ Errors led to BP refinery blast
- ^ BP puts 100 gas stations up for
sale in Colorado.(British Petroleum Company PLC)
- ^ Gas station signs of change
- ^ Oil Gushes into Arctic Ocean from
- ^ Mark Tran (19 July 2006). "BP shuts leaking Alaskan wells".
"Guardian Unlimited" (London). http://money.guardian.co.uk/businessnews/article/0,,1824145,00.html.
- ^ "Penny Shares Online: BP(BP.)".
10 July 2006. http://www.pennysharesonline.com/company/B/BP-BP..asp. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
- ^ "BP Set
to Leave Russia Gas Project" by Guy Chazan and Gregory White, Wall
Street Journal, 22 June 2007 p. A3.
- ^ BP to Sell Most Company-Owned,
Company-Operated Convenience Stores to Franchisees
- ^ BP CEO set to retire
- ^ BP's Browne quits over lie
- ^ "Oil rig blaze off Louisiana
leaves at least 11 missing". BBC News. 21 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8634874.stm. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- ^ "U.S. Gulf state shrimpers sue BP
over oil spill". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSN2913409720100430?type=marketsNews. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- ^ BP: The Board
- ^ a
Baker Panel Report
Associated Press, "BP fined record $87 million for safety breaches", 31
- ^ Alaska Oil Spill Fuels Concerns
Over Arctic Wildlife, Future Drilling
"Alaska Update". BP. 2
October 2006. http://usresponse.bp.com/go/doc/1249/132386/.
- ^ BP accused of 'draconian' cost
cuts prior to Alaskan pipeline spill
- ^ Methanol and crude spill from
Prudhoe Bay pipeline
- ^ "For BP, oil spill is a public
relations catastrophe". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles
Times). 30 April 2010. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/apr/30/business/la-fi-gulf-bp-20100501. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- ^ "Leaking Oil Well Lacked
Safeguard Device". Wall Street Journal
(Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). 28 April 2010.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704423504575212031417936798.html. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- ^ "Guard mobilized, BP will foot
bill". Politico (Capitol News Company
LLC). 1 May 2010. http://www.politico.com/politico44/perm/0410/cabinetlevel_oil_spill_meet_bcb87e48-b21e-4b72-8716-3d3a87ac7ffa.html. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- ^ The Baku Ceyhan Pipeline: BP's
- ^ BP pays out millions to Colombian
- ^ Citizens concerned about project
- ^ The tactics of these rogue
climate elements must not succeed
- ^ Cree aboriginal group to join
London climate camp protest over tar sands
- ^ Seabed supplies a cure for global
- ^ Ten Worst Corporations of 2000
- ^ The 10 Worst Corporations of 2005
- ^ bp: Beyond Petroleum?
- ^ SaveTheArctic.com
- ^ GB patent application 1435945,
"Oil Clean-Up Method", published 12 May 1976
- ^ "Global Climate Coalition".
- ^ How green is BP?
- ^ Monbiot, George (13 June 2006). "Behind the spin, the oil giants
are more dangerous than ever". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1796114,00.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- ^ Edinburgh Evening News
- ^ BP – nominated for green spin on the activities of the
- ^ Energy Biosciences Institute - Main Home
- ^ Stop BP-Berkeley
- ^ About the station | The greencurve
- ^ 'Green' BP Station Still Pumps
Gas : NPR
- ^ BP unveils green gas
station : Business News : Redding Record Searchlight
- ^ "BP". The Center For
Responsive Politics. http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.asp?ID=D000000091&Name=BP.
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Responsive Politics. http://opensecrets.org/lobbyists/clientsum.asp?year=2007&txtname=BP.
- ^ BP stops paying political parties
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- ^ "BP wins coveted 'Emerald
Paintbrush' award for worst greenwash of 2008". Greenpeace.org.uk.
22 December 2008. http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/blog/climate/bps-wins-coveted-emerald-paintbrush-award-worst-greenwash-2008-20081218. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- ^ Scripps Institution