This is a list of German expressions used in English; some relatively common (e.g. hamburger), most comparatively rare. In many cases, the German borrowing in English has assumed a meaning substantially different from its German forebear.

English and German both descended from the West Germanic languages, though their relationship has been obscured by the great influx of Norman French words to English as a consequence of the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and the High German consonant shift. In recent years, however, many English words have been borrowed directly from German. Typically, English spellings of Germanloanwords suppress any umlauts (the superscript, double-dot diacritic in Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö and ü) of the original word or replace the umlaut letters with Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue, respectively (influenced by Latin: æ, œ.)

German words have been incorporated into English usage for many reasons: common cultural artefacts, especially foods, have spread to English-speaking nations and often are identified either by their original German names or by German-sounding English names; the history of academic excellence of the German-speaking nations in science, scholarship, and classical music has led to the academic adoption of much German for use in English context; discussion of German history and culture requires knowing German words. Lastly, some German words are used simply to fictionalise an English narrative passage, implying that the subject expressed is in German, i.e. using Frau, Reich, and so on, although sometimes usage of German words holds no German implication, as in doppelgänger or angst.

As languages, English and German descend from the common ancestor language West Germanic and further back to Proto-Germanic; because of this, some English words are identical to their German lexical counterparts, either in the spelling (Hand, Sand, Finger) or in the pronunciation (Fish = Fisch, Mouse =Maus), or both (Arm, Ring); these are excluded from this words list.

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## German terms commonly used in English

The German words of this category will easily be recognized by many English speakers; they are commonly used in English contexts. Some, such as wurst or pumpernickel, still retain German connotations, while others, such as lager and hamburger, retain none. Not every word is recognizable outside its relevant context.

### Sports and recreation

• Abseil (German spelling: sich abseilen, a reflexive verb, to rope (seil) oneself (sich) down (ab)); the term abseiling is used in the UK and commonwealth countries, "roping (down)" in various English settings, "rappelling" in the US and "snapling" by Israelis.
• Blitz, taken from Blitzkrieg (lightning war). It is a team defensive play in American or Canadian football in which the defense sends more players than the offense can block.
• Karabiner, snaplink, a metal loop with a sprung or screwed gate, used in climbing and mountaineering; modern short form/derivation of the older word 'Karabinerhaken'; translates to 'riflehook'. The German word can also mean Carbine.
• Kutte, a type of vest made out of denim or leather and traditionally worn by bikers, metalheads andpunks
• Fahrvergnügen meaning "driving pleasure"; originally, the word was introduced in a Volkswagenadvertising campaign in the U.S., one tag line was: "Are we having Fahrvergnügen yet?").
• Foosball, from the German word for association football, Fußball; paradoxically, foosball is calledKicker in German
• Kletterschuh, climbing shoe (mountaineering)
• Rucksack (more commonly called a backpack in U.S. English)
• Schuss, literally: shot (ski) down a slope at high speed
• Turnverein, a gymnastics club or society
• Volksmarsch / Volkssport, non-competitive fitness walking
• Volkswanderung
• Wunderbar

### Other aspects of everyday life

• –bahn as a suffix, e.g. Infobahn, after Autobahn
• Blücher, a half-boot named after Prussian General Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742–1819); also a hand in the British card game Napoleon.
• Dachshund, literally badger dog, a dog breed (the breed usually goes by the name of Dackel in German usage).
• Doberman Pinscher, a dog breed
• Doppelgänger, "double-goer"; also spelled in English as doppelganger; a double or look-alike. However, in English the connotation is that of a ghostly apparition of a duplicate living person.
• Dreck, literally dirt or smut, but now means trashy, awful (through Yiddish, OED s.v.)
• Dummkopf, dumm=dumb/not intelligent + Kopf=head; a stupid, ignorant person
• Ersatz, replacement; usually implying an artificial and inferior substitute or imitation
• Fest, festival
• Flak, Flugabwehrkanone, literally: air-defence cannon, for anti-aircraft artillery or their shells, also used in flak jacket; or in the figurative sense: "drawing flak" = being heavily criticized
• Gemütlichkeit, coziness
• Gesundheit, literally: health; an exclamation used in place of "bless you!" after someone has sneezed
• Kaffeeklatsch, afternoon meeting where people (most times referring to women) chitchat while drinking coffee or tea; Kaffee = coffee, Klatsch = gossip, klatschen = chitchatting
• kaput (German spelling: kaputt), out-of-order
• Kindergarten, children’s garden, day-care centre, playschool, preschool
• Kitsch, cheap, sentimental, gaudy items of popular culture
• Kraut, a derogatory term for a German, literally means cabbage in German
• Lebensraum, space to live
• Meister, Master, also as a suffix: –meister
• Nazi, short form for Nationalsozialist (= National Socialist)
• Neanderthal (modern German spelling: Neandertal), for German Neandertaler, which means: of, from, or pertaining to the Neandertal ("Neander Valley"), site near Düsseldorf where early Homo neanderthalensis fossils (also called Neandertaler in German) were found
• Oktoberfest, Bavarian folk festival held annually in Munich during late September and early October
• Poltergeist, mischievous, noisy ghost; cases of haunting, involving spontaneous psychokinesis
• Rottweiler, breed of dog
• Schadenfreude, delight at the misfortune of others
• Schnauzer, breed of dog
• Spitz, a breed of dog
• uber, über, over; used to indicate that something or someone is of better or superior magnitude, e.g.Übermensch
• Ur– (German prefix), original or prototypical; e.g. Ur–feminist, Ursprache, Urtext
• verboten, prohibited, forbidden. Both in English and German, this word has authoritarian connotations.
• Volkswagen, brand of automobile
• Wanderlust, the yearning to travel
• Wiener as in "You're a Wiener", signifying a spineless, weak person. In German, the term "Würstchen" (the diminuitive form of Wurst) is used in its place
• Wunderkind, wonder child, a child prodigy
• Zeitgeist, spirit of the time
• Zeppelin, type of rigid airship named after its inventor

## German terms common in English academic context

German terms sometimes appear in English academic disciplines, e.g. history, psychology, philosophy,music, and the physical sciences; laypeople in a given field may or may not be familiar with a given German term.

### Arts

• Gesamtkunstwerk, "the whole of a work of art", also "total work of art" or "complete artwork"
• Gestalt "The Whole is greater than the sum of the parts"

#### Music

##### Meanings of German band names
• 2raumwohnung = 2 room apartment (used only in DDR, in West Germany: Zweizimmerwohnung)
• Alter Der Ruine = "Age of the Ruin"
• Böhse Onkelz = this is the correct but idiosyncratic spelling of the name of the German band (the correct plural would be "Onkel" without the z or an s, and "böse" for the correct German word for 'evil') "evil uncles," a term used in German as a euphemism for child molesters. The peculiar spelling of the band is intended to "harden" the appearance of the name (h in this context amplifies the ö; z is pronounced ts in German, and sounds sharper than s). The umlaut over the o in Böhse is not a heavy metal umlaut.
• Deichkind = dike (or levee) child
• Deutsch-Amerikanische Freundschaft (or D.A.F.) = German-American Friendship
• Die Ärzte = the (medical) doctors, a German Punkrock band.
• Die Fantastischen Vier = the fantastic four
• Die Roten Punkte = The Red Dots
• Die Sterne = the stars (celestial body)
• Die Toten Hosen = literally the dead trousers. A slang expression for a boring place to be (phrase: "Hier ist total tote Hose.") (commonly used in the northern parts of Germany), it can also refer to impotence.
• Dschinghis Khan = The German spelling of Genghis Khan.
• Einstürzende Neubauten = "collapsing new buildings". For the band this evokes the image of buildings built during the post-war era, which were very hastily erected, hence supposedly prone to collapse.
• Eisbrecher = Ice breaker
• Erste Allgemeine Verunsicherung = "First Public/General Uncertainty/Un-Insurance (better: the first undermining of the public sense of security)", often abbreviated "EAV". Band name was inspired by the real existing insurance company "Erste Allgemeinen Versicherungs-AG" (First General Insurance Inc.)
• Feindflug = "attack-raid" (general term for any flight with enemy contact, as opposed to civilian, recon or training flights)
• Fehlfarben = An elder trademark for cheap cigars, but also the term for stamps and furs in the wrong colour, as well the colours in a card play, which are not trump
• Fettes Brot = literally fat bread, but "fett" is also a Slang expression for cool
• Fluchtweg = "way of escape"
• Fräulein Wunder = "Miss Miracle", an allusion to the German expression de:Fräuleinwunder, a phenomenon in 1950s Germany referring to modern, attractive and self-assured young women
• Freundeskreis = circle of friends
• Geschmeido = A distortion of the term Geschmeide or geschmeidig, just meaning "jewellery" or "supple"
• Juli = July
• Kettcar = the trademark name of a line of toy cars propelled by pedals and a chain. The name is a play on the name of the firm that produces the cars, Kettler, as well as the word for "chain", Kette.
• Klee = not only the painter Paul Klee, but also German for clover.
• KMFDM = "Kein Mehrheit Für Die Mitleid" [sic] (literally "no majority for the pity," which is a grammatically incorrect rearrangement of "Kein Mitleid für die Mehrheit" or "no pity for the masses.")
• Kraftwerk = power plant
• Kreidler = an elder moped trademark
• Massive Töne = massive sounds
• Nachtmahr = old word for "nightmare" or a legendary creature
• Neu! = new!
• Panzer AG = "Tank p.l.c."
• Panik = "panic", a German metal band
• Rammstein = "ramming stone" (literal) or "battering ram" (figurative), an intentional misspelling ofRamstein and the USAF Ramstein Air Base , the location of the Ramstein airshow disaster. Some translate it as "[stone] hammerhead"
• Rosenstolz = "pride of roses"
• Rotersand = literally "red sand", named after a famous lighthouse in the North Sea
• Silbermond = literally silver moon, German popband
• Tokio Hotel = literally "Tokyo Hotel", German rock band
• Virginia Jetzt! = Virginia now!
• Wir sind Helden = we are heroes
• Die Zimmermänner = The former Ede & Die Zimmermänner, referring to the television personalityEduard Zimmermann, the initiator and talking head of the TV police search broadcasting in the German ZDF sender. A Zimmermann is also a carpenter by profession or a stay-at-home - einStubenhocker.

### Geology

Minerals including:

### History

(Some terms are listed in multiple categories if they are important to each.)

### Military terms

• Blitzkrieg, Lightning war. Phrase invented by a Spanish journalist to describe mobile combined arms methods used by Nazis in 1939–1940.
• Flak (Flugabwehrkanone), anti-aircraft gun (for derived meanings see under Other aspects of everyday life)
• Fliegerhorst, another word for a military airport
• Karabiner a carbine. For the climbing hardware, see carabiner above
• Kriegsspiel, in English also written Kriegspiel, war game (different meanings)
• Luftwaffe, air force
• Panzer refers to tanks and other armoured vehicles, or formations of such vehicles
• Panzerfaust, "tank fist": anti-tank weapon, a small one-man launcher and projectile.
• Strafe, punishment
• U-Boot (abbreviated form of Unterseeboot — submarine, but commonly called U-Boot in Germany as well)
• Vernichtungsgedanke (thought of annihilation)

### Psychology

• Aha-Erlebnis, literally aha experience, a sudden insight or epiphany, compare eureka
• Angst, feeling of fear, but more deeply and without concrete object
• Sorge, a state of worry, but (like Angst) in a less concrete, more general sense, worry about the world, one's future, etc.
• Gestalt psychology, (German spelling: Gestaltpsychologie), holistic psychology
• Schadenfreude, gloating, a malicious satisfaction obtained from the misfortunes of others
• Umwelt, environment
• Zeitgeber (lit. time-giver), something that resets the circadian clock found in the Suprachiasmatic nucleus
• Weltschmerz, world-pain or world-weariness
• Wunderkind, child prodigy

## German terms mostly used for literary effect

There are a few terms which are recognised by many English speakers but are usually only used to deliberately evoke a German context:

• Autobahn — particularly common in British English and American English referring specifically to German motorways which have no general speed limit.
• Achtung — Literally, "attention" in English.
• Frau and Fräulein — Woman and young woman or girl, respectively in English. Indicating marital state, with Frau — Mrs. and Fräulein — Miss; in Germany, however, the diminutive Fräulein lapsed from common usage in the late 1960s . Regardless of marital status, a woman is now commonly referred to as Frau, because from 1972 the term Fräulein has been officially phased out for being politically incorrect and should only be used if expressly authorized by the woman concerned.
• Führer (umlaut is usually dropped in English) — always used in English to denote Hitler or to connote a Fascistic leader — never used, as is possible in German, simply and unironically to denote a (non-Fascist) leader or guide, (i.e. Bergführer: mountain guide, Stadtführer: city guide (book), Führerschein:driving licence, Flugzeugführer: Pilot in command, etc.)
• Gott mit uns (means "God be with us" in German), the motto of the Prussian king, it was used as a morale slogan amongst soldiers in both World Wars. It was bastardized as "Got mittens" by American and British soldiers, and is usually used nowadays, because of the German defeat in both wars, derisively to mean that wars are not won on religious grounds.
• Hände hoch — hands up
• Herr — evokes German context; In modern German either the equivalent of Mr./Mister, used to directly address an adult male person or used in the of "master" over something or someone. (ex.:Sein eigener Herr sein: to be his own master) Derived from the adjective hehr, meaning "honourable" or "senior", it was historically a title noblemen were entitled to, equivalent to the english word Lord. (ex.: Herr der Fliegen is the German title of Lord of the Flies) In a religious environment used to denote God, there in a colloquial context often —and especially among Catholics— contracted into Herrgott(Lord-God).
• Lederhosen (Singular Lederhose in German denotes one pair of leather short pants or trousers. The original Bavarian word is Lederhosn, which is both singular and plural.)
• Leitmotif (German spelling: Leitmotiv) Any sort of recurring theme, whether in music, literature, or the life of a fictional character or a real person.
• Meister — used as a suffix to mean expert (Maurermeister), or master; in Germany it means also champion in sports (Weltmeister, Europameister, Landesmeister)
• Nein — no
• Raus — meaning Out! — shortened (colloquial) (depending on where the speaker is, if on the inside "get out!" = hinaus, if on the outside "come out!" = heraus). It is the imperative form of the german verbherauskommen (coming out (of a room/house/etc.) as in the imperative "komm' raus"!). [13]
• Reich — from the Middle High German "rich", as a noun it means "empire" and "realm", which may still be seen in the English word "bishopric". In titles where it is part of a compound noun, for example, "Deutsche Reichsbahn," it is equivalent to the English word "national" (German National Railway), or "Reichspost" (National Postal Service). To English speakers, Reich does not denote its literal meanings, "empire" or "rich", but strongly connotes Nazism and is often used to suggest Fascism or authoritarianism, e.g., "Herr Reichsminister" used as a title for a disliked politician.'
• Ja — yes
• Jawohl a German term that connotes an emphatic yes — "Yes, Indeed!" in English. It is often equated to "yes sir" in Anglo-American military films, since it is also a term typically used as an acknowledgement for military commands in the German military.
• Schnell! — Quick! or Quickly!
• Kommandant — commander (in the sense of person in command or Commanding officer, regardless of military rank), used often in the military in general (Standortkommandant: Base commander), on battleships and U-Boats (Schiffskommandant or U-Boot-Kommandant), sometimes used on civilian ships and aircraft.
• Schweinhund (German spelling: Schweinehund) — literally: Schwein = pig, Hund = dog, vulgarism like in der verdammte Schweinehund (the damned pig-dog). But also used to describe the lack of motivation (for example to quit a bad habit) Den inneren Schweinehund bekämpfen. = to battle the inner pig-dog.

## German terms rarely used in English

This is the unsorted, original list. If a term is common in a particular academic discipline, and there is no more commonly used English equivalent, then please move it to the list above.

• Ampelmännchen
• Besserwisser[14]
• Fahrvergnugen (German spelling: Fahrvergnügen, literally pleasure of driving. Coined for a Volkswagen advertising campaign; caused widespread puzzlement in America when it was used in television commercials with no explanation.)
• Gastarbeiter — a German "guest worker" or foreign-born worker
• Götterdämmerung, literally "Twilight of the Gods", can refer to a disastrous conclusion of events such as the defeat of Nazi Germany that had an ideology in part based on Norse mythology; an allusion to the title of the Wagner opera.
• Kobold — a small mischievous fairy creature, traditionally translated as "Goblin", "Hobgoblin", and "Imp"; the roleplaying game Dungeons & Dragons has included reptilian Kobolds (as well as creatures called "Goblins", "Imps" and "Hobgoblins" in completely separate forms) as part of the bestiary for a number of editions, including the current edition, D&D 4th Edition. Kobold is also the origin of the name of the metal cobalt.
• Schmutz (smut, dirt, filth). This term is, however, particularly popular in New York, reflecting the influence of the Yiddish language.
• ... über alles (originally "Deutschland über alles" (this sentence was meant originally to propagate a united Germany instead of small separated German Territories only); now used by extension in other cases, as in the Dead Kennedys song California Über Alles). This part (or rather, the whole first stanza) of the Deutschlandlied (Song of the Germans) is not part of the national anthem today, as it is thought to have been used to propagate the attitude of racial and national superiority in Nazi Germany, as in the phrase "Germany over all".
• Vorsprung durch Technik ('headstart through technology'): used in an advertising campaign by Audi, to suggest technical excellence
• Zweihänder, two-handed sword

## Quotations

Some famous English quotations are translations from German. On rare occasions an author will quote the original German as a sign of erudition.

• Muss es sein? Es muss sein!: "Must it be? It must be!" — Beethoven
• Der Krieg ist eine bloße Fortsetzung der Politik mit anderen Mitteln: "War is politics by other means" (literally: "War is a mere continuation of politics by other means") — Clausewitz
• Ein Gespenst geht um in Europa — das Gespenst des Kommunismus: "A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism" — The Communist Manifesto
• Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!: "Workers of the world, unite!" — The Communist Manifesto
• Gott würfelt nicht: "God does not play dice" — Einstein
• Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht: "Subtle is the Lord, but malicious He is not" —Einstein
• Wir müssen wissen, wir werden wissen: "We must know, we will know" — David Hilbert
• Was kann ich wissen? Was soll ich tun? Was darf ich hoffen?: "What can I know? What shall I do? What may I hope?" — Kant
• Die ganzen Zahlen hat der liebe Gott gemacht, alles andere ist Menschenwerk: "God made the integers, all the rest is the work of man" — Leopold Kronecker
• Hier stehe ich, ich kann nicht anders. Gott helfe mir. Amen!: "Here I stand, I cannot do differently. God help me. Amen!" — attributed to Martin Luther
• Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen: "Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent" — Wittgenstein
• Einmal ist keinmal: "What happens once might as well never have happened." literally "once is never"; theme of The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera

This is a list of pseudo-German words adopted from German and adapted in such a way into English that their original meanings are no longer readily recognised by indigenous German speakers due to the new circumstances in which they were being used in English:

• Blitz – ("The Blitz") Chiefly British use, the sustained attack by the German Luftwaffe from 1940 to1941 which began after the Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England). It was adapted from "Blitzkrieg" (literally "lightning war", meaning sudden, quick war), the sudden and overwhelming attack on many smaller European countries and their defeat by the Wehrmacht. "Blitz" (German for "bolt of lightning") has never been used in actual German in its aerial-war aspect and became an entirely new usage in English during World War II.
• In American football a "blitz" occurs when any number of defensive players other than those on the defensive line abandon their normal position and attack the offensive backfield in the hopes of quickly outnumbering and overwhelming the offensive blocking scheme, before the quarterback or ballcarrier can react, possibly causing a loss-of-yards, sack, risky throw, incompletion, fumble, interception, etc. Since it can leave the defensive structure under-manned, a blitz is a high risk high reward defensive strategy, one which can be utilized against either the passing game, or the running game.
• Blitz chess is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves.[1]
• Hock for a German white wine, derived from Hochheim am Main in Germany
• stein or beer stein – usually refers to a decorative beer mug made out of a non-transparent material; the term is derived from German Steinzeug "stoneware", a material that went out of fashion for beer mugs at the end of the 19th century, and has since been replaced by glass for hygienic reasons. Steinjust means "stone" in German, where beer mugs are called Bierkrug (or Maßkrug or Maß for a one-liter mug).
• (to) strafe – in its sense of "to machine-gun troop assemblies and columns from the air", became a new adaptation during World War I, of the German word strafen – to punish. In recent years "strafe" has referred specifically to the horizontal yawing motion of an airplane raking an area with machine-gun fire, and is now also used to mean "to move sideways while looking forward", so that many first-person shooter computer games have "strafe" keys.[citation needed]
• Mox Nix – from German idiom "macht nichts". Often used by U.S. servicemen to mean "whatever" or "it doesn't matter".[2]
• zaftig or zoftig — plump, rounded, full-breasted or full-figured; from the German saftig, meaning 'juicy', probably introduced into English via Yiddish[citation needed]}}

Contents: Top · 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

## A

Aardvark
from both Afrikaans and Dutch, literally "earth-pig" (the animal burrows), from aard (="earth") +varken (="pig")[1]
Afrikaans
from Afrikaans (via Afrikaans) (="African" adj.)
Ahoy
from hoi (="hello")
Aloof
from a- + Middle English loof (="weather gage," also "windward direction"), probably from Dutch loef(="the weather side of a ship"); originally a nautical order to keep the ship's head to the wind, thus to stay clear of a lee-shore or some other quarter, hence the figurative sense of "at a distance, apart"[2]
Anchor
"liquid measure", that of Rotterdam, once used in England, from Dutch anker[3]
Avast
a nautical interjection (="hold! stop!"), probably worn down from Dutch houd vast (="hold fast")[4]

## B

Bamboo
from Dutch bamboe, from Portuguese bambu, earlier mambu (16th century), probably from Malaysamambu, though some suspect this is itself an imported word [5]
Bantam
after Bantam, former Dutch residency in Java, from which the small domestic fowl were said to have been first imported [6] The word could have originated in Kannada ಬಮ್ಬು bambu.[2]
Batik
from Dutch, from Malay mbatik (="writing, drawing") [7]
Bazooka
"metal tube rocket launcher," from name of a junkyard musical instrument used as a prop by U.S. comedian Bob Burns, extension of bazoo (slang for "mouth" or "boastful talk"), probably from Dutchbazuin (="trumpet") [8]
Beaker
from beker [9] (="mug, cup")
Beleaguer
from belegeren (="besiege, attack with an army") [10]
Berm
from French berme, from Old Dutch baerm (in Dutch, the English meaning is now archaic, bermbeing used as "usually grassy ground alongside a road") [11]
Bicker
"a skirmish, fight," bikern, probably from Middle Dutch bicken (="to slash, stab, attack") + -er, Middle English frequentative suffix [12]
Blare
blèren (="to wail"), possibly from an unrecorded Old English *blæren, or from Middle Dutch bleren(="to bleat, cry, bawl, shout") [13]
Blasé
from French blasé, past participle of blaser (="to satiate"), origin unknown; perhaps from Dutchblazen (="to blow"), with a sense of "puffed up under the effects of drinking" [14]
Blaze (to make public, often in a bad sense, boastfully)
from Middle Dutch blasen (="to blow, on a trumpet) [15]
from Middle Dutch blinken (="to glitter") [16]
Blister
from Old French blestre, perhaps from a Scandinavian source or from Middle Dutch blyster(="swelling") [17]
Block (solid piece)
from Old French bloc (="log, block"), via Middle Dutch bloc (="trunk of a tree") or Old High Germanbloh [18]
Blow (hard hit)
blowe, from northern and East Midlands dialects, perhaps from Middle Dutch blouwen (="to beat")[19]
Bluff (poker term)
perhaps from Dutch bluffen (="to brag, boast") or verbluffen (="to baffle, mislead") [20]
Bluff (landscape feature)
from Dutch blaf (="flat, broad"), apparently a North Sea nautical term for ships with flat vertical bows, later extended to landscape features [21]
Blunderbuss
from Dutch donderbus, from donder (="thunder") + bus (="gun," originally "box, tube"), altered by resemblance to blunder [22]
Boer
(="Dutch colonist in South Africa") from Dutch boer (="farmer"), from Middle Dutch [23]
Bogart
after Humphrey Bogart[24]. Boomgaard means "orchard"[25].
Boodle
perhaps from Dutch boedel (="property") [26]
Boom
from boom (="tree"); cognate to English beam, German baum[27]
Booze
from Middle Dutch busen (="to drink in excess"); [28] according to JW de Vries busen is equivalent to buizen [3]
Boss
from baas [29]
Bow (front of a ship)
from boeg [30]
Brackish
from Scottish brack, from Middle Dutch brak (="salty," also "worthless") [31]
Brandy (wine)
from brandewijn (literally "burnt wine") [32]
Brawl
from brallen [33]
Brooklyn
after the town of Breukelen near Utrecht Brooklyn
Bully
from boel (="lover," "brother"), from Middle High German buole, maybe influenced by bull[34].
Bulwark
from bolwerk [35]
Bundle
from Middle Dutch bondel (=diminutive of bond), from binden "bind," or perhaps a merger of this word and Old English byndele (="binding") [36]
Bumpkin
from bommekijn (="little barrel") [37]
Bung
from Middle Dutch bonge (="stopper"), or perhaps from French bonde, which may be of Germanic origin, or from Gaulish bunda [38]
Buoy
from boei (="shackle" or "buoy") [39]
Bush (uncleared district of a British colony)
probably from Dutch bosch, in the same sense, since it seems to appear first in former Dutch colonies [40]

## C

Caboose
from kambuis or kombuis (="ship's kitchen", "galley") [41]
Cam
from Dutch cam (="cog of a wheel," originally "comb"), cognate of English comb
Clove (disambiguation)
from kloof [3] (="steep valley", "gorge")
Cockatoo
from kaketoe [42]
Coleslaw
from koolsla (literally "cabbage salad") [43]
Commodore
probably from Dutch kommandeur, from French commandeur, from Old French comandeor [44]
from koekje, or in informal Dutch koekie [45] (="biscuit", "cookie")
Coney Island
from Conyne Eylandt (literally "Rabbits' Island")
Crimp
from krimpen (= "to shrink") [3]
Cruise
from Dutch kruisen (="to cross, sail to and fro"), from kruis (="cross") [46]
Cruller
from Dutch krullen (="to curl") [47]

## D

Dam
from Middle Dutch dam (compare Amsterdam or Rotterdam) [48]
Dapper
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German dapper (="bold, strong, sturdy,") [49]
Deck
from dek (originally "covering") [50]
Decoy
from de kooi (="the cage," used of a pond surrounded by nets, into which wildfowl were lured for capture) [51]
Delftware
from Delft, town in Holland where the glazed earthenware was made; the town named from its chief canal, from Dutch delf, (literally "ditch, canal"), which is related to Old English dælf and modern delve[52]
Dike
from dijk (="embankment") [53]
Dock (maritime)
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German docke [54]
Domineer
from Dutch domineren (="to rule") [55]
Dope
old meaning "sauce," now "drugs," comes from the Dutch verb (in)dopen (usually ="to baptize," but here ="to dip in") [56]
Dredge
from Scottish dreg-boat (="boat for dredging") or Middle Dutch dregghe (="drag-net"), one possibly from the other but hard to tell which came first; probably ultimately from root of drag [57]
Drill (verb)
from Middle Dutch dril, drille and in modern Dutch drillen [58]
Drug
from Old French drogue, perhaps from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German droge-vate (="dry barrels"), with first element mistaken as word for the contents (see dry goods), or because medicines mostly consisted of dried herbs [59]
Dune
from Middle Dutch dune, before from Celtic dun (="hill"), in modern Dutch duin

## E

Easel
from ezel (=originally (and still) "donkey") [60]
Etch
from ets or etsen [61]
Excise (noun)
(="tax on goods") from Middle Dutch excijs, apparently altered from accijns (="tax"); English got the word, and the idea for the tax, from Holland [62]

## F

Filibuster
from Spanish filibustero from French flibustier ultimately from Dutch vrijbuiter (="pirate" or "freebooter") [63]
Flense
from Danish flense or Dutch vlensen [64]
Foist
from Dutch vuisten (="take in hand"), from Middle Dutch vuist (="fist") [65]
Forlorn hope
from verloren hoop (literally "lost troop," figuratively "suicide mission," "cannon fodder") [66]
Freebooter
from vrijbuiter [67]
Freight
from vracht [68]
Frolic
from vrolijk (="cheerful") [69]
Furlough
from verlof (="permission (to leave)") [70]

## G

Galoot
(="awkward or boorish man"), originally a sailor's contemptuous word (="raw recruit, green hand") for soldiers or marines, of uncertain origin; "Dictionary of American Slang" proposes galut, Sierra Leone creole form of Spanish galeoto (="galley slave"); perhaps rather Dutch slang kloot (="testicle"),klootzak (="scrotum"), used figuratively as an insult [71]
Gas
from gas, a neologism from Jan Baptista van Helmont, derived from the Greek chaos [72]
Geek
from geck (gek) (="fool") [73] [74]
Gherkin
from Dutch plural of gurk (="cucumber"), shortened form of East Frisian augurk [75]
from Dutch gimp [76]
Gin
from jenever [77]
Gnu
from gnoe (from Bushman !nu) [78]
Golf
from kolf (="bat, club," but also a game played with these) [3]
Grab
from grijpen (="to seize, to grasp, to snatch") [79]
Gruff
from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grof (="coarse (in quality), thick, large") [80]
Guilder
from gulden [81]

## H

Hale (verb)
(="drag, summon"), from Old Frankonian haler (="to pull, haul"), from Frankonian *halon or Old Dutchhalen, both from Proto Germanic [82]
Hankering
from Middle Dutch hankeren or Dutch hunkeren [83]
Harlem
called after the city of Haarlem near Amsterdam
Hartebeest
from both Afrikaans (Hartebees) and Dutch (Hartebeest)[4]
Hoboken
possibly named after the Flemish town Hoboken, from Middle Dutch Hooghe Buechen or Hoge Beuken (="High Beeches" or "Tall Beeches")
howitzer
from Dutch houwitzer, which in turn comes from German Haussnitz and later Haubitze.
Hoist
possibly from Middle Dutch hijsen [84]
Holster
from holster [85]
Hooky
from hoekje (=corner) in the sense of "to go around the corner" [86]
Hoyden
maybe from heiden (=backwoodsman), from Middle Dutch (=heathern) [87]

## I

Iceberg
probably from Dutch ijsberg (literally ice mountain). [88]
Ietsism
from Dutch ietsisme (literally: somethingism) an unspecified faith in a higher or supernatural power or force
Isinglass
probably from Dutch huizenblas (No longer used) [89]

## K

Keelhauling
from kielhalen (literally "to haul keel")[90]
Keeshond
prob. from special use of Kees (shortening of proper name Cornelius) + hond "dog" [91]
Kill (body of water)
from kil from Middle Dutch kille (literally "riverbed") [92]
Kink
from kink referring to a twist in a rope [93]
Knapsack
possibly from knapzak (literally "bag of snacks") [94]
Knickerbocker
The pen-name was borrowed from Washington Irving's friend Herman Knickerbacker, and literally means "toy marble-baker." Also descendants of Dutch settler of New York are referred to as Knickerbockers and later became used in reference to a style of pants [95]

## L

Landscape
from landschap [96]
Leak
possibly from lekken (="to drip, to leak") [97]
Loafer
from loper (="walker") [98]
Loiter
from Middle Dutch loteren [99]
Luck
from Middle Dutch luc, shortening of gheluc (="happiness, good fortune")('geluk' in modern Dutch)[100]

## M

Maelstrom
from maalstroom (literally "grinding current" or "stirring current") (possibly Norse in origin) [101]
Manikin
from Brabantian manneken (literally "little man") [102]
Mannequin
via French from Dutch (Brabantian) manneken (literally "little man") [103]
Mart
from Middle Dutch marct (literally "market") (modern Dutch: markt) [104]
Measles
possibly from Middle Dutch masel "blemish" (modern Dutch: mazelen) [105]
Meerkat
from both Afrikaans and Dutch meerkat [106] (but the words do not have the same meaning)
Morass
from moeras (="swamp") [107]

## O

Offal
possibly from Middle Dutch afval (="leftovers, rubbish") [108]

## P

Patroon
from patroon (="patron") [109]
Pickle
c.1440, probably from Middle Dutch pekel [110]
Pinkie
Pinkje/Pinkie [111]
Pit
the stone of a drupaceous fruit : from pit [112]
Plug
from plugge, originally a maritime term.[113]
Polder
from polder
Poppycock
from pappekak (=dialect for "soft dung") [114]
Pump
from pomp [115]

## Q

Quack
shortened from quacksalver, from kwakzalver (literally "someone who daubs ointments") [116]

## R

Roster
from rooster (="schedule, or grating/grill") [117]
Rover
from rover (="robber") [118]

## S

Santa Claus
from Middle Dutch Sinterklaas (="Saint Nicholas"), bishop of Asia Minor who became a patron saint for children. (Dutch and Flemish feast celebrated on the 5th and 6th of December respectively) (Origins of Santa Claus in US culture)[119]
Schooner (boat)
from schoener
Scone
from schoon (="clean") [120]
Scow
from schouw (a type of boat) [121]
Shoal
from Middle Dutch schole (="large number (of fish)") (etymology not sure)
Skate
from schaats. The noun was originally adopted as in Dutch, with 'skates' being the singular form of the noun; due to the similarity to regular English plurals this form was ultimately used as the plural while 'skate' was derived for use as singular." [122]
Sketch
from schets [123]
to Scour
from Middle Dutch scuren (now "schuren") [124]
Skipper
from Middle Dutch scipper (now schipper, literally "shipper") [125]
Sled, sleigh
from Middle Dutch slede, slee [126]
Slim
"thin, slight, slender," from Dutch slim "bad, sly, clever," from Middle Dutch slim "bad, crooked,"[127]
Sloop
from sloep [128]
Slurp
from slurpen [129]
Smack (boat)
possibly from smak "sailboat," perhaps so-called from the sound made by its sails [130]
Smearcase
Smelt
from smelten (="to melt") [131]
Smuggler
from Low German smuggeln or Dutch smokkelen (="to transport (goods) illegally"), apparently a frequentative formation of a word meaning "to sneak" [132]
Snack
perhaps from Middle Dutch snakken (="to long" (snakken naar lucht="to gasp for air") originally "to eat"/"chatter") [133]
Snoop
from snoepen (to eat (possibly in secret) something sweet) [134]
Snuff
from snuiftabak (literally "sniff tobacco") [135]
Splinter
from splinter [136]
Split
from Middle Dutch splitten [137]
Spook
from spook (="ghost(ly image)") [138]
Spoor
from both Afrikaans and Dutch spoor (="track"/"trail")
Stoker
from stoken (="stoke a fire") [139]
Stern
hind part of a ship related to Steven in Dutch and Stiarn in Frisian [140]
Still life
from Dutch stilleven [141]
Stoop (steps)
from stoep (="flight of steps, doorstep") [142]
Stockfish
from Dutch stokvis (= "stick fish")
Stove
from Middle Dutch stove (="heated room"). The Dutch word stoof, pronounced similarly, is a small (often wooden) box with holes in it. One would place glowing coals inside so it would emanate heat, and then put one's feet on top of it while sitting (in a chair) to keep one's feet warm. [143]
Sutler
from zoetelaar (="one who sweetens", sweetener, old-fashioned for "camp cook") [144]

## T

Tattoo (military term)
from taptoe (literally "close the tap"). So called because police used to visit taverns in the evening to shut off the taps of casks. [145]
Tickle
from kietelen [146]
Trigger
from trekker (Trekken ="to pull") [147]
Tulip
from tulp [148]

## V

Vang
from Dutch vangen (=to catch)
Veld
from Cape Dutch, used in South African English to describe a field

## W

Waffle (noun)
from Dutch wafel, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German wafel [149]
Walrus
from walrus [150]
Wagon
from Dutch wagen, Middle Dutch waghen (= "cart, carriage, wagon") [151]
Wentletrap
from Dutch wenteltrap: wentelen (= "winding, spiraling") and trap (= "stairway").
Wiggle
from wiggelen (= "to wobble, to wiggle") or wiegen (= "to rock") [152]
Witloof
from Belgian Dutch witloof (literally wit "white" + loof "foliage"), Northern Dutch witlof [153]
Wrack
probably from wrak [154]

## Y

Yacht
from obsolete Dutch jaght, from Middle Low German jacht, short for jachtschip (literally "hunting ship") [155]
Yankee
from Jan Kees, a personal name, originally used mockingly to describe pro-French revolutionary citizens, with allusion to the small keeshond dog, then for "colonials" in New Amsterdam (Note: this is not the only possible etymology for the word yankee. For one thing, the Oxford English Dictionary has quotes with the term from as early as 1765, quite some time before the French Revolution.) [156]

• bagel: a ring-shaped bread roll made by boiling then baking the dough (from בײגל beygl) (OED,MW)
• blintz: a sweet cheese-filled crepe (Yiddish בלינצע blintse from russian "блины" bliny) (AHD)
• bris: the circumcision of a male child. (from Hebrew brith 'covenant') (OED, MW)
• boychick: boy, young man. (English boy + Eastern Yiddish -chik, diminutive suffix (from Slavic)) (AHD)
• bubkes (also spelled "bupkis"): emphatically nothing, as in He isn't worth bubkes (literally 'goat droppings', possibly of Slavic origin; cf. Polish bobki 'animal droppings') (MW)
• chutzpah: nerve, guts, daring, audacity, effrontery (Yiddish חוצפּה khutspe, from Hebrew) (AHD)
• dreck: (vulgar) worthless material, especially merchandise; literally: "crap" or "shit" (Yiddish דרעק  drekcf. German Dreck) (OED, MW)
• dybbuk: the malevolent spirit of a dead person which enters and controls a living body until exorcised (from Hebrew דיבוק dibbuk, 'a latching-onto') (AHD)
• fleishig: made with meat (Yiddish פֿליישיק  fleyshik 'meaty', from fleysh 'meat', cf. German fleischig'meaty') (MW)
• ganef or gonif: thief, scoundrel, rascal (Yiddish גנבֿ ganev or ganef 'thief', from Hebrew gannav). (AHD)
• gelt: money; chocolate coins eaten on Hanukkah (געלט gelt 'money', cf. German Geld) (AHD)
• glitch: a minor malfunction (possibly from Yiddish glitsh, from glitshn 'slide', cf. German glitschen'slither') (AHD)
• golem: a man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (from Hebrew גולם gōlem, but influenced in pronunciation by Yiddish goylem) (OED, MW)
• goy: a Gentile, someone not of the Jewish faith or people (Yiddish גוי, plural גויים or גוים goyim; from Hebrew גויים or גוים goyim meaning 'nations [usually other than Israel]', plural of גוי goy 'nation') (AHD)
• haimish (also heimish): home-like, friendly, folksy (Yiddish  היימיש  heymish, cf. German heimisch) (AHD)
• huck; sometimes "hock", "huk", "hak". etc.: to bother incessantly, to break, or nag; from hakn a tshaynik (break a china teapot). Frequently used by characters intended to represent residents of New York City, even if not Jewish, in movies and television shows such as Law & Order.[2]
• kibitz: to offer unwanted advice, e.g. to someone playing cards; to converse idly, hence a kibbitzer, gossip (Yiddish קיבעצן kibetsn; cf. German kiebitzen, related to Kiebitz 'lapwing') (OED, MW)
• klutz: clumsy person (from Yiddish קלאָץ klots 'wooden beam', cf. German Klotz) (OED, MW)
• kosher: conforming to Jewish dietary laws; (slang) appropriate, legitimate (originally from Hebrew כּשרkašer) (AHD)
• kvell: to feel delighted and proud to the point of tears (Yiddish קװעלן kveln, from an old Germanic word akin to German quellen 'well up') (OED, MW)
• kvetch: to complain habitually, gripe; as a noun, a person who always complains (from Yiddish קװעטשן kvetshn 'press, squeeze', cf. German quetschen 'squeeze') (OED, MW)
• latke: potato pancake, especially during Hanukkah (from Yiddish לאַטקע , from either Ukrainian or Russian) (AHD)
• Litvak: a Lithuanian Jew (OED)
• lox: smoked salmon (from Yiddish לאַקס laks 'salmon'; cf. German Lachs) (OED, MW)
• macher: big shot, important person (Yiddish מאַכער makher, literally 'maker' from מאַכן makhn 'make', cf. German Macher) (OED)
• mamzer: bastard (from Yiddish or Hebrew ממזר) (OED)
• maven: expert; when used in a negative sense: a know-it-all (from Yiddish מבֿין meyvn, from Hebrewmevin 'one who understands') (OED, MW)
• mazel: luck (Yiddish מזל mazl, from Hebrew מזל mazzāl 'luck, planet') (OED)
• Mazal Tov: congratulations! (Yiddish מזל־טובֿ‏ mazl-tov, from Hebrew mazzāl ṭōv: mazzāl 'fortune' or 'sign of the Zodiac (constellation)' + ṭōv 'good') (OED, MW:Hebrew)
• megillah: a tediously detailed discourse (from Yiddish מגילה megile 'lengthy document, scroll [esp. the Book of Esther]', from Hebrew מגילה məgillā 'scroll') (OED, MW)
• mensch: an upright man; a decent human being (from Yiddish מענטש mentsh 'person', cf. GermanMensch) (OED, MW)
• meshuga, also meshugge, meshugah, meshuggah: crazy (Yiddish משוגע meshuge, from Hebrewməšugga‘) (OED, MW)
• meshugas: madness, nonsense, irrational idiosyncrasy (Yiddish משוגעת meshugas, from Hebrewməšugga‘ath, a form of the above) (OED)
• meshuggener: a crazy person (Yiddish משוגענער meshugener, a derivative of the above משוגעmeshuge) (OED)
• milchig: made with milk (Yiddish milkhik milky, from milkh milk, cf. German milchig) (MW)
• minyan: the quorum of ten male adult (i.e., 13 or older) Jews that is necessary for the holding of a public worship service (Yiddish מנין minyen, from Hebrew מנין minyān) (OED, MW:Hebrew)
• mishpocha: extended family (Yiddish משפּחה mishpokhe, from Hebrew משפּחה mišpāḥā) (OED)
• naches: feeling of pride in 1: the achievements of one's children; 2. one's own doing good by helping someone or some organization (Yiddish נחת nakhes, from Hebrew נחת naḥath 'contentment') (OED)
• narrischkeit: foolishness, nonsense (Yiddish נאַרישקייט, from nar 'fool', cf. German närrisch 'foolish') (OED)
• nebbish: an insignificant, pitiful person; a nonentity (from Yiddish interjection nebekh 'poor thing!', from Czech nebohý) (OED, MW)
• noodge, also nudzh: to pester, nag, whine; as a noun, a pest or whiner (from Yiddish נודיען nudyen, from Polish or Russian) (OED)
• nosh: snack (noun or verb) (Yiddish נאַשן nashn, cf. German naschen) (OED, MW)
• nu: multipurpose interjection often analogous to "well?" or "so?" (Yiddish נו nu, perhaps akin to Russian "ну" (nu) or German na='well'; probably not related to German dialect expression nu [short fornun=now], which might be used in the same way) (OED)
• nudnik: a pest, "pain in the neck"; a bore (Yiddish נודניק nudnik, from the above נודיען nudyen; cf. Polish nudne, 'boring') (OED, MW)
• oy or oy vey: interjection of grief, pain, or horror (Yiddish אוי וויי oy vey 'oh, pain!' or "oh, woe"; cf. German oh weh) (OED)
• pareve: containing neither meat nor dairy products (from Yiddish (פּאַרעוו(ע parev(e)) (OED, MW)
• pisher: a nobody, an inexperienced person (Yiddish פּישער pisher, from פּישן pishn 'piss', cf. Germanpissen or dialectal German pischen) (OED)
• potch: spank, slap, smack (Yiddish פּאטשן patshn; cf. German patschen 'slap') (OED)
• plotz: to burst, as from strong emotion (from Yiddish פּלאַצן platsn 'crack', cf. German platzen) (OED)
• putz: an idiot, a jerk; a penis (from Yiddish פּאָץ pots) (AHD)
• schav: A chilled soup. (AHD)
• schlemiel: an inept clumsy person; a bungler; a dolt (Yiddish shlemil from Hebrew שלא מועיל "ineffective") (OED, MW)
• schlep: to drag or haul (an object); to make a tedious journey (from Yiddish שלעפּן shlepn; cf. Germanschleppen) (OED, MW)
• schlimazel: a chronically unlucky person (שלימזל shlimazl, from Middle High German slim 'crooked' and Hebrew מזל mazzāl 'luck') (OED).[3] In June 2004, Yiddish shlimazl was one of the ten non-English words that were voted hardest to translate by a British translation company.[4]
• schlock: something cheap, shoddy, or inferior (perhaps from Yiddish shlak 'a stroke', cf. GermanSchlag) (OED, MW)
• schlong: (vulgar) penis (from Yiddish שלאַנג shlang 'snake'; cf. German Schlange) (OED)
• schlub: a clumsy, stupid, or unattractive person (Yiddish ‬זשלאָב zhlob 'hick', perhaps from Polish żłób) (OED, MW)
• schmaltz: melted chicken fat; excessive sentimentality (from Yiddish שמאַלץ shmalts or GermanSchmalz) (OED, MW)
• schmatta: a rag (from Yiddish שמאַטע shmate, from Polish szmata) (OED); also means junk or low-quality merchandise: "Don't buy from Silverman; all he sells is schmatta."
• schmeer also schmear: noun or verb: spread (e.g., cream cheese on a bagel); bribe (from Yiddish שמיר shmir 'smear'; cf. German schmieren) (OED, MW)
• schmo: a stupid person. (an alteration of schmuck; see below) (OED)
• schmooze: to converse informally, make small talk or chat (from Yiddish שמועסן shmuesn 'converse', from Hebrew shəmūʿōth 'reports, gossip') (OED, MW)
• schmuck: a contemptible or foolish person; a jerk; literally means 'penis' (from Yiddish שמאָק shmok'penis', maybe from Polish smok 'dragon') (AHD)
• schmutter: clothing; rubbish (from Yiddish שמאַטע shmate 'rag', as above) (OED)
• schmutz - dirt (from Yiddish שמוץ shmuts or German Schmutz 'dirt') (OED)
• schnook: an easily imposed-upon or cheated person, a pitifully meek person, a particularly gullible person, a cute or mischievous person or child (perhaps from Yiddish שנוק shnuk 'snout'; cf. Northern German Schnucke 'sheep') (OED)
• schnorrer: beggar (Yiddish שנאָרער shnorer, cf. German schnorren 'to beg or steal (usu. a small item of a consumable good) of a friend'[5]) (OED, MW)
• schnoz or schnozz also schnozzle: a nose, especially a large nose (perhaps from Yiddish שנויץshnoyts 'snout', cf. German Schnauze) (OED, MW)
• schvartze: term used to denote black people; can be used derogatorily. (from Yiddish שוואַרץ shvarts'black'; cf. German schwarz). (OED)
• schvitz: schvitz or schviting: To sweat, perspire, exude moisture as a cooling mechanism (From Yiddish). . (OED)
• Shabbos or Shabbes: Shabbat (Yiddish Shabes, from Hebrew Šabbāth) (AHD)
• shammes or shamash: the caretaker of a synagogue; also, the 9th candle of the Hanukkah menorah, used to light the others (Yiddish shames, from Hebrew שמש šammāš 'attendant') (OED, MW)
• shamus: a detective (possibly from shammes, or possibly from the Irish name Seamus) (OED, Macquarie)
• shegetz: (derogatory) a young non-Jewish male (Yiddish שגץ or שײגעץ sheygets, from Hebrew šeqeṣ'blemish') (AHD)
• shemozzle (slang) quarrel, brawl (perhaps related to schlimazel, q.v.) (OED). This word is commonly used in Ireland to describe confused situations during the Irish sport of hurling, e.g. 'There was a shemozzle near the goalmouth'. In particular, it was a favourite phrase of t.v. commentator Miceal O'Hehir who commentated on hurling from the 1940s to the 1980s.
• shicker or shickered: drunk (adjective or noun) (Yiddish shiker 'drunk', from Hebrew šikkōr) (OED)
• shiksa or shikse: (often derogatory) a young non-Jewish woman (Yiddish שיקסע shikse, a derivative of the above שײגעץ sheygets) (AHD)
• shmendrik: a foolish or contemptible person (from a character in an operetta by Abraham Goldfaden) (OED)
• shtetl: a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Eastern Europe (Yiddish שטעטלshtetl 'town', diminutive of שטאָט shtot 'city'; cf. German Städtl, South German / Austrian colloquial diminutive of Stadt, city) (AHD)
• shtick: comic theme; a defining habit or distinguishing feature (from Yiddish שטיק shtik 'piece'; cf. German Stück 'piece') (AHD)
• shtup: vulgar slang, to have intercourse (from Yiddish שטופּ "shtoop" 'push,' 'poke,' or 'intercourse') (OED)
• spiel or shpiel: a sales pitch or speech intended to persuade (from Yiddish שפּיל shpil 'play' or German Spiel 'play') (AHD)
• tchotchke: knickknack, trinket, curio (from Yiddish צאַצקע tsatske, טשאַטשקע tshatshke, from obsolete Polish czaczko) (OED, MW)
• tref or trayf or traif: not kosher (Yiddish treyf, from Hebrew ṭərēfā 'carrion') (AHD)
• tzimmes: a sweet stew of vegetables and fruit; a fuss, a confused affair, a to-do (Yiddish צימעסtsimes) (OED, MW)
• tsuris: troubles (from Yiddish צרות tsores, from Hebrew צרות tsarot 'troubles') (AHD)
• tukhus: buttocks, bottom, rear end (from Yiddish תּחת tokhes, from Hebrew תחת taḥath 'underneath') (OED)
• tummler: an entertainer or master of ceremonies, especially one who encourages audience interaction (from Yiddish tumler, from tumlen 'make a racket'; cf. German (sich) tummeln 'go among people, cavort') (OED, MW)
• tush (also tushy): buttocks, bottom, rear end (from tukhus) (OED, MW)
• vigorish (also contraction vig): that portion of the gambling winnings held by the bookmaker as payment for services (probably from Yiddish, from Russian vyigrysh, winnings) (OED)
• verklempt: choked with emotion (German verklemmt = emotionally inhibited in a convulsive way; stuck)
• yarmulke: round cloth skullcap worn by observant Jews (from Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke, from Polishjarmułka, ultimate etymology unclear, possibly Turkish) (OED, MW, AHD)
• Yekke: (mildly derogatory) a German Jew (Yiddish יעקע Yeke) (OED)
• yenta: a talkative woman; a gossip; a scold (from Yiddish יענטע yente, from a given name) (OED,MW)
• Yiddish: the Yiddish language (from Yiddish ייִדיש yidish 'Jewish', cf. German jüdisch) (AHD)
• yontef also yom tov: a Jewish holiday on which work is forbidden, eg. Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur,Pesach (from Yiddish יום- טובֿ yontef 'holiday', from Hebrew יום טוב yōm ṭōv 'good day') (OED)
• yutz: a stupid, clueless person ([1] [2])
• zaftig: plump, chubby, full-figured, as a woman (from Yiddish זאַפֿטיק zaftik 'juicy'; cf. German saftig'juicy') (OED, MW)